What Are The Types of Domestic Violence?

Types of Domestic Violence

What Are The Types of Domestic Violence?

When most people think of domestic violence, they imagine a situation where the abusive partner physically hurts the victim. However, physical harm is only one form of abuse and there are various types of domestic violence; domestic violence can be physical, emotional, sexual, financial, or psychological.

Being victimized by a situation of domestic violence can create feelings of helplessness and even self-doubt, so it's important that you understand the different signs of abuse so that you can identify the problem and to get help.

Getting Help

Many victims try to justify their abuser's actions, and try to convince themselves that the situation will improve. Keep in mind, however, that domestic violence situations frequently escalate.

What may begin as occasional intimidation, threats of violence, or aggressive sexual advances, can escalate into rape, physical assault, and even murder.

If you have children, be aware that when they witness domestic violence, it can lead to them developing violent behaviors later in life.

If you're a victim, know that you can get help. There are resources available including: police help, legal prosecution of the abuser, restraining orders, and institutional support. Domestic violence is a serious matter that's often unreported, partly because victims are unaware of the different types of domestic violence.

Physical Abuse

Physical abuse is the most recognizable form of domestic violence. It involves the use of force against the victim, causing injury (a punch or a kick, stabbing, shooting, choking, slapping, forcing you to use drugs, etc.).

However, the injury doesn't need to be a major one. For example, your abuser slaps you a few times, causing only minor injuries that don't require a visit to the hospital.

Although the injury is minimal, the slapping would constitute domestic violence.

Emotional Abuse

Emotional abuse involves the destruction of the victim's self-worth, and is brought about by persistent insult, humiliation, or criticism. Emotional abuse can be a difficult type of domestic violence for many people to understand, since, on the surface, it appears to be quite common in unhealthy relationships.

In most states, emotional abuse is not enough on its own to bring a domestic violence action unless the abuse is so persistent and so significant that the relationship can be labeled extremely coercive. Typically, evidence of emotional abuse is combined with other abuse (physical, financial, sexual, or psychological) to bring a domestic violence action.

Sexual Abuse

Sexual abuse is a common form of domestic violence. It includes not only sexual assault and rape, but also harassment, such as unwelcome touching and other demeaning behaviors.

Many victims don't realize how broadly sexual abuse is interpreted. For example, if you've ever been coerced into not using contraception (the pill, a condom, an IUD, etc.

) or having an abortion, then you may have actually been sexually abused. This form of abuse is known as reproductive coercion.

Financial Abuse

Of the types of domestic violence, financial abuse is perhaps the least obvious. Financial abuse may take on many forms, such as a husband preventing his wife from obtaining an education or a job outside the home.

Financial abuse is extremely common, particularly when families have pooled their money into joint accounts (with one partner controlling) and where there's little or no family support system to help.

Financial abuse is simply another form of control, even though it is usually less obvious than physical or sexual abuse.

Often, the victim is completely dependent on their partner for money. With no access to money except through the abusive partner, the victim is completely at the abusive partner's mercy. The abusive partner may withhold money for food, clothing, and more. If children are involved, this can overlap with neglect.

Psychological Abuse

Psychological abuse is basically a catchall term for intimidating, threatening, or fear-causing behavior. This behavior must be persistent and significant. A one-time event generally won't be enough to bring a domestic violence action. emotional abuse, psychological abuse may not, on its own, be enough to bring a domestic violence action unless it's especially severe.

A wide variety of behaviors fall under the umbrella of psychological abuse. Some common examples include:

  • Preventing the victim from talking to people unless they have «permission»;
  • Preventing the victim from leaving the house;
  • Threatening the victim with violence or
  • Emotional blackmail for doing something the abusive partner doesn't agree with.

Questions about the Types of Domestic Violence? Get Help From an Attorney

Although some types of domestic violence are more ly to be the basis for legal action, all forms are harmful to the victim. If you think you're in a domestic violence situation, you should seek help. Reach out to an experienced family law attorney to learn how you can protect yourself.

Источник: https://www.findlaw.com/family/domestic-violence/types-of-domestic-violence.html

What Is Domestic Abuse? | United Nations

What Are The Types of Domestic Violence?

Domestic abuse, also called «domestic violence» or «intimate partner violence», can be defined as a pattern of behavior in any relationship that is used to gain or maintain power and control over an intimate partner. Abuse is physical, sexual, emotional, economic or psychological actions or threats of actions that influence another person.

This includes any behaviors that frighten, intimidate, terrorize, manipulate, hurt, humiliate, blame, injure, or wound someone. Domestic abuse can happen to anyone of any race, age, sexual orientation, religion, or gender. It can occur within a range of relationships including couples who are married, living together or dating.

Domestic violence affects people of all socioeconomic backgrounds and education levels. 

Anyone can be a victim of domestic violence, regardless of age, race, gender, sexual orientation, faith or class

Victims of domestic abuse may also include a child or other relative, or any other household member.

Domestic abuse is typically manifested as a pattern of abusive behavior toward an intimate partner in a dating or family relationship, where the abuser exerts power and control over the victim.

Domestic abuse can be mental, physical, economic or sexual in nature. Incidents are rarely isolated, and usually escalate in frequency and severity. Domestic abuse may culminate in serious physical injury or death.

Are You Being Abused?

Look over the following questions to think about how you are being treated and how you treat your partner.

Recognizing the signs of domestic abuse

Does your partner…

  • Embarrass or make fun of you in front of your friends or family?
  • Put down your accomplishments?
  • Make you feel you are unable to make decisions?
  • Use intimidation or threats to gain compliance?
  • Tell you that you are nothing without them?
  • Treat you roughly—grab, push, pinch, shove or hit you?
  • Call you several times a night or show up to make sure you are where you said you would be?
  • Use drugs or alcohol as an excuse for saying hurtful things or abusing you?
  • Blame you for how they feel or act?
  • Pressure you sexually for things you aren’t ready for?
  • Make you feel there is “no way out” of the relationship?
  • Prevent you from doing things you want – spending time with friends or family?
  • Try to keep you from leaving after a fight or leave you somewhere after a fight to “teach you a lesson”?


Do you…

  • Sometimes feel scared of how your partner may behave?
  • Constantly make excuses to other people for your partner’s behaviour?
  • Believe that you can help your partner change if only you changed something about yourself?
  • Try not to do anything that would cause conflict or make your partner angry?
  • Always do what your partner wants you to do instead of what you want?
  • Stay with your partner because you are afraid of what your partner would do if you broke up?


If any of these things are happening in your relationship, talk to someone. Without help, the abuse will continue. Making that first call to seek help is a courageous step.


Always remember…

  • NO ONE deserves to be abused. The abuse is not your fault. You are not alone.
  • DON’T worry about threats to your visa. We have information about visa options for your situation.
  • DON’T worry if you do not speak the local language. We can get you help in many Languages.

Power and Control Wheel

Physical and sexual assaults, or threats to commit them, are the most apparent forms of domestic abuse and violence and are usually the actions that allow others to become aware of the problem.

However, regular use of other abusive behaviors by the abuser, when reinforced by one or more acts of physical violence, make up a larger system of abuse.

Although physical assaults may occur only once or occasionally, they instill the fear of future violent attacks and allow the abuser to take control of the victim's life and circumstances.

The Power & Control wheel is a particularly helpful tool in understanding the overall pattern of abusive and violent behaviors, which are used by an abuser to establish and maintain control over his/her partner or any other victim in the household. Very often, one or more violent incidents may be accompanied by an array of these other types of abuse. They are less easily identified, yet firmly establish a pattern of intimidation and control in the relationship.

(Source: Developed by Domestic Abuse Intervention Project, Duluth, MN, https://www.theduluthmodel.org/)

Emotional abuse includes undermining a person's sense of self-worth through constant criticism; belittling one's abilities; name-calling or other verbal abuse; damaging a partner's relationship with the children; or not letting a partner see friends and family. You may be in an emotionally abusive relationship if your partner:

  • Calls you names, insults you or continually criticizes you.
  • Does not trust you and acts in a jealous or possessive manner.
  • Tries to isolate you from family or friends.
  • Monitors where you go, whom you call and with whom you spend your time.
  • Does not want you to work.
  • Controls finances or refuses to share money.
  • Punishes you by withholding affection.
  • Expects you to ask permission.
  • Threatens to hurt you, the children, your family or your pets.
  • Humiliates you in any way.

Psychological abuse: involves causing fear by intimidation; threatening physical harm to self, partner or children; destruction of pets and property; “mind games”; or forcing isolation from friends, family, school and/or work.

Financial or economic abuse: involves making or attempting to make a person financially dependent by maintaining total control over financial resources, withholding access to money, and/or forbidding attendance at school or employment.

Physical abuse: involves hurting or trying to hurt a partner by hitting, kicking, burning, grabbing, pinching, shoving, slapping, hair-pulling, biting, denying medical care or forcing alcohol and/or drug use, or using other physical force. You may be in a physically abusive relationship if your partner:

  • Damages property when angry (throws objects, punches walls, kicks doors, etc.).
  • Pushes, slaps, bites, kicks or chokes you.
  • Abandons you in a dangerous or unfamiliar place.
  • Scares you by driving recklessly.
  • Uses a weapon to threaten or hurt you.
  • Forces you to leave your home.
  • Traps you in your home or keeps you from leaving.
  • Prevents you from calling police or seeking medical attention.
  • Hurts your children.
  • Uses physical force in sexual situations.

Sexual abuse: involves forcing a partner to take part in a sex act when the partner does not consent. You may be in a sexually abusive relationship if your partner:

  • Accuses you of cheating or is often jealous of your outside relationships.
  • Wants you to dress in a sexual way.
  • Insults you in sexual ways or calls you sexual names.
  • Has ever forced or manipulated you into having sex or performing sexual acts.
  • Holds you down during sex.
  • Demands sex when you are sick, tired or after beating you.
  • Hurts you with weapons or objects during sex.
  • Involves other people in sexual activities with you.
  • Ignores your feelings regarding sex.

Stalking involves any pattern of behavior that serves no legitimate purpose and is intended to harass, annoy, or terrorize the victim. Typical stalking activities include repeated telephone calls, unwelcome letters or gifts by mail, surveillance at work, home and other places that the victim is known to frequent. Stalking usually escalates.

For Survivors

  • No one deserves to be abused. The abuse is not your fault. You are not alone.
  • Contact the Critical Incident Stress Management Unit (CISMU) if you are concerned that you may be experiencing any form of abuse or are in fear for the safety of yourself or your children.
  • If English is not your first language, you can request a language you feel more comfortable speaking when contacting CISMU to provide support.
  • You can also see Support Organizations to identify and contact an appropriate resource for your assistance (for both US and International).
  • Read how you can protect your digital privacy.

For Concerned Staff — How Can You Help?

How you can help victims of domestic abuse?

  • Listen and believe the abused person to let them know they are not alone.
  • Encourage her/him seek support through a confidential hotline to connect with a professional in the field.
  • Express concern for him/her, show support, and offer referrals to available resources.
  • If you have not been directly approached but have reason to believe that a colleague may be in an abusive relationship, consult with your Organization’s Counselling or Ombudsman’s Office >

Note: Keep in mind that a survivor often makes several attempts to leave the abusive relationship before succeeding.

For Abusive Partner — Are You An Abuser?

  • If you recognize that you are mistreating your partner, there may be resources in your community to assist you end the abuse. The National Domestic Violence Hotline has a number of resources that can assist. While this a US Hotline, the advice and information may be useful no matter where you live.
  • Understand that the domestic abuse is not only against the United Nations code of conduct, but you may be subject to criminal prosecution under the law that is applicable in the duty station where you work.

Источник: https://www.un.org/en/coronavirus/what-is-domestic-abuse

Domestic violence and the different types explained

What Are The Types of Domestic Violence?

Domestic and family violence is more than physical abuse. People who choose to use violence in relationships use many different tactics to gain power and control over another person, through fear.

These can include, but are not limited to: Financial/Economic abuse, Verbal abuse, Psychological / Emotional abuse, as well as Digital / Technological abuse, Spiritual/Cultural abuse, Social Isolation abuse, Stalking, Sexual abuse, Damage to Personal Property.

What type of relationships does domestic violence happen within? 

Any intimate partner relationships, examples include a woman being abused by a male, or a male being abused by a woman.

This could be a current or previous partner, or an uncle to a cousin, or a close family friend to a family member. Domestic and family violence can happen in any relationship.

It is not exclusive to heterosexual relationships, it also occur within same-sex couples and other intimate relationships within the LGBTIQ+ community.

People in intimate relationships disagree about things from time to time.  These disagreements are a normal part of a healthy relationship.

 In a healthy relationship, both parties in an intimate relationship should be able to voice their different points of view or concerns and feel comfortable discussing them with their partner.

In a healthy relationship both parties treat each other with respect, as equals and compromise so they can find a solution they are both happy with. In an unhealthy relationship, where domestic and family violence is occurring the situation is very different.

In an unhealthy relationship, one person in the relationship uses abuse and/or violence to control the other person through fear. As a result, the person feeling controlled may feel threatened and too frightened to argue back, or too scared to disagree or express their opinion.

The below outline domestic and family violence behaviours:

Financial / Economic Abuse

Financial abuse (also known as economic abuse) includes refusing you access to money, especially where the money is legally due to you. For example your wages or an inheritance. It also includes accumulating debt in your name, or preventing you from seeking or keeping employment. More

Verbal Abuse

Verbal abuse can include constant put-downs, insults, ridicule, name calling, yelling, humiliation in public or in private, as well as insults around sexuality, body image, intelligence or parenting skills.

Psychological / Emotional Abuse

Psychological/emotional abuse can includes behaviour and/or comments and taunts to undermine your sense of self and your personal security. This may impose a sense of vulnerability around your personal safety or mental health and wellbeing. More

Social Isolation Abuse

Social isolation abuse is systematically controlling who you see, who you speak to, or who you receive phone calls, messages or email from. Controlling where you go so that you become socially or geographically isolated from other people. More

Digital / Technology Abuse

Digital abuse can involve using technology to bully, harass or intimidate a partner. This can include threats to share, or actually sharing private photos online without your consent. It also includes controlling who you can and cannot be friends with on social media and sending insulting messages via digital platforms. More

Spiritual / Cultural Abuse

Spiritual or cultural abuse can include not allowing you to practice your chosen religion or cultural beliefs. Misusing religious or spiritual traditions to justify physical or other abuse towards you.


Stalking is intended to intimidate and/or harass you. It can include following you to work, your place of study, your home, or following you when you are out in public.

It can include the stalker/abuser watching you, phoning you, leaving phone messages for you, writing you letters, or text messaging you.

  It also includes sending you text messages, or messages via social media, and/or signing into your social media accounts. Stalking is a crime. More

Reproductive Control

Reproductive control is closely aligned with sexual abuse. It is uniquely related to women’s, (specifically young women’s) ability to control their own reproductive health.

For example, using or not using contraception. Or forcing you to make decisions around pregnancy and/or termination.

As well as having little to say in the number of children you have, or the timing of when you have children.

Damage to Personal Property

Damage to personal property includes using physical strength or violence to intimidate you by causing, or threatening to cause damage to your property or valuables.

Understanding power and control

This video explains the domestic violence tactics used to gain power and control. (Duration 2.19 minutes).

 The 8 different tactics often used within a violence where the perpetrator chooses to use violence.

These are using Intimidation, using Emotional Abuse, using Isolation, using Minimising, Denying, Blaming, using Children, using Male Privilege, using Economic Abuse, using Coercion and Threats.

Understanding the use of physical and sexual abuse

This video explains how physical and sexual abuse is used to gain power and control within domestic violence. (Duration 2.53 minutes)

Understanding the use of intimidation to gain power and control

This video explains the domestic violence power tactic of intimidation. (Duration 3.46 minutes)

Understanding how emotional abuse is used to gain power and control

This video explains how emotional abuse is used to slowly gain power and control. (Duration 4.47 minutes)

Understanding isolation to gain power and control

This video explains how men use male privilege to gain power and control in a relationship where the male chooses to use violence within the relationship. (Duration 3.07 minutes)

Understanding how minimising, denying and blaming are used to gain power and control

This video explains the domestic violence tactics of minimising, denying and blaming to gain power and control. (Duration 4.25 minutes)

Understanding how children are used to gain power and control

This video explains how someone choosing to use domestic and family violence use children to gain power and control. (Duration 3.31 minutes)

Understanding the use of male privilege to gain power and control

This video explains how men use male privilege to gain power and control in a relationship where the male chooses to use violence within the relationship. (Duration 3.14 minutes)

Understanding coercion and threats to gain power and control

This video explains the domestic violence power tactic of coercion and threats. (Duration 1.40 minutes)

More information

  • What you can do to help end domestic violence? Read
  • What is the Cycle of Violence? Read
  • What are the Signs of an Abusive Relationship? Read
  • What do controlling relationships look ? Read
  • What is Safety Planning? Read
  • What is a Women’s Shelter / Refuge?  Read

Call us, we can help you

Call 1800 811 811

Источник: https://www.dvconnect.org/domestic-violence/

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