The Short and Long Term Effects of Hallucinogens

The Long-Term Effects of Hallucinogens

The Short and Long Term Effects of Hallucinogens

While using drugs LSD and mushrooms is generally safer than harder drugs heroin or methamphetamine, it is still important to be aware of the long-term effects of hallucinogens that can occur from using these types of substances.

Hallucinogens distort one’s perception of reality by changing the way the brain’s prefrontal cortex processes information. This critical area of the brain control conscious thought, perception, and cognition.

Even short-term abuse of hallucinogens may result in temporary psychosis. The long-term effects of hallucinogens include a host of unpleasant possibilities.

These include persistent psychosis as evidenced, wild mood discrepancies or variations, hallucinations, and irrational thinking.

Luckily, there are addiction treatment options and sober living homes for those who are dealing with addiction-related issues.

Long-Term Effects of Hallucinogen Abuse

Not only do users experience a myriad of disturbing effects from hallucinogens, but, if they continue using drugs, they will ly experience devastating consequences. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, the following long-term effects have been linked to using classic hallucinogens:

Persistent Psychosis

One of the more troubling long-term effects of hallucinogens is varying levels of psychosis. In cases of persistent psychosis, there is a profound detachment from reality.

Users may experience wild mood swings, violent outbursts, emotional outbursts, and hallucinations that may seem all too real.

Panic attacks are not uncommon and almost mirror the symptoms of paranoid schizophrenia, which includes hallucinations, delusional thinking, and abnormal behavior. These episodes can last for several hours up to many years, but such length is rare.

Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder (HPPD)

Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder (HPPD) involves hallucinations that most people typically associate with drugs in this group. Things seeing halos and trails attached to moving objects are very real side effects.

Other visual disturbances can include after images or ghost images, flashes of light, twinkling sparkles of light, and bolts of light or light trails.

The symptoms of HPPD are sometimes mistaken for neurological disorders, a stroke or a brain tumor: people who experience these symptoms know the experiences are imaginary, but they are disturbing nonetheless.

Flashbacks

Flashbacks can become very problematic, especially for those dealing with personal trauma, abuse trauma, or PTSD. For people dealing with co-occurring mental disorders, professional treatment is highly recommended. Surprisingly, these flashbacks can occur long after a person has stopped using hallucinogens.

Scientists have not been able to fully explain this phenomenon, but this is yet another example of the effects of hallucinogens. In short, there’s a possibility of users feeling as if they have used the drug even if they’ve been sober for a prolonged period of time.

These flashbacks may take place for months or years after you’ve stopped using hallucinogens and might be triggered by fatigue, stress, trauma, use of other legal drugs or even when exerting yourself.

Amotivational Syndrome

Amotivational Syndrome manifests itself as apathy, passivity, and an inability to take interest in any activity whatsoever. In short, a total and complete lack of motivation, drive or interest in any form of exertion. Users suffering from this symptom appear to others to be socially withdrawn and lethargic.

Along with these long-term effects, hallucinogens also lead to a number of different short-term effects of hallucinogenic drugs that can also happen. Unfortunately, these issues can lead to major problems and dangerous physical and psychological symptoms. Some of the common short-term hallucinogen abuse symptoms include:

  • Speech difficulty
  • Unexplained loss of weight
  • Severe depression or lethargy
  • Loss of memory
  • Violent behavior
  • Increased instances of panic
  • Impaired or total lack of concentration
  • Increased liness of fantasies or delusions
  • Unexplained behavior and other mental disturbances

Fortunately, the effects of hallucinogens usually subside once the individual stops taking the drugs. While there is the possibility of withdrawal symptoms when they stop abusing hallucinogens, a medically supervised detox program can help ensure a lower risk during the detoxification process.

If hallucinogen use has become a problem for you or a loved one, it’s time to seek professional addiction treatment. While there is a difference between substance use and substance abuse, addiction treatment can help one to overcome the triggers that can lead to relapse.

If in doubt, you should talk to the person about their addiction or substance problems.

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Источник: https://www.thedistrictrecovery.com/addiction-blog/long-term-effects-of-hallucinogens/

Short and Long-Term Effects of Hallucinogens

The Short and Long Term Effects of Hallucinogens

Hallucinogens are drugs that can alter the perceptions of a user by acting on the neural circuits of the brain. This particular class of drug affects the prefrontal cortex, which is a region of the brain that regulates the mood, cognition, and perception of the person.

They are also believed to affect the secretion of serotonin and affect the physiological responses to panic and stress. Not only that, they also regulate the brain’s arousal responses.

With all these affected areas in the brain, it is crucial to know the short and long-term effects of cause someone to see images, hear sounds, and feel sensations that are not really there. These can last for 20 to 90 minutes, or even as long as 12 hours, while the shortest can last for 15 minutes.

It all depends on the type of hallucinogen one takes and the amount. If the effects are unpleasant to the user, these are referred to as “bad trips”. Here are some of the short-term side effects that users might experience:

  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Increased heart rate
  • Changes in sense of time
  • Intensified sensory experiences seeing brighter colors and more vivid details of an object
  • Increased body temperature
  • Increased breathing rate
  • Dryness of mouth
  • Loss of appetite
  • Sleeping problems or insomnia
  • Feelings of relaxation
  • Spiritual experiences
  • Panic
  • Excessive sweating
  • Uncoordinated movements
  • Enhanced sexual feelings
  • Psychosis
  • Paranoia
  • Other bizarre behaviors

Now, not all experiences or “trips” turn out good for the user. In fact, a person can experience a whole lot of psychosis, anxiety, fear, amnesia, and even violent outbursts.

A study in 2011 showed that over 100,000 people sought out medical emergency treatment for these negative side effects. That is why hallucinogens are considered to be dangerous and unpredictable considering the bizarre behaviors that the users exhibit.

Hallucinogens mixed with other drugs can be even more risky. It could also lead to overdosing, seizures, coma and worse, untimely death.

Long Term Effects of Hallucinogens

One of the most typical long term side effects of hallucinogens are flashbacks. When we say flashbacks, it refers to the reemergence of the drug’s intoxicating experience which usually pops up at random times. According to studies, about 5 to 50% of people who had used these drugs have suffered from at least one flashback.

The worst part of having flashbacks is when they become persistent and disrupt a person’s everyday routine. This can eventually develop into a disorder known as Hallucinogenic Persisting Perception Disorder or HPPD.

The user will experience visual disturbances trails of lights or halos which can occur without warning and at continuous rate. Another disorder that could develop among hallucinogen addicts is what we call the Persistent Psychosis.

This is the result of long-term abuse of hallucinogens and individuals suffering from this condition may experience:

  • Disorganized thoughts
  • Visual disturbances
  • Mood swings
  • Paranoia

Some of these side effects may be similar to symptoms of Schizophrenia and if not corrected right away, users can suffer memory loss, weight loss, speech difficulties, depression, and troubled thinking. Other long term side effects of hallucinogens can result to withdrawal symptoms that include:

  • Sleep issues
  • Nausea
  • Agitation
  • Anxiety
  • Headaches
  • Vomiting
  • Dizziness
  • Intense cravings for hallucinogens

When a person is no longer in control of their drug use, they will suffer physical, emotional, psychological, and social consequences. When this happens, the need for immediate medical care is a must.

Mixing Hallucinogens with Other Drugs

Hallucinogens when mixed with other drugs can cause a lot of trouble to the user. These effects usually depend on the type of drug mixed with the hallucinogen. Combining them with stimulants cocaine or amphetamines can cause major heart problems that could lead to an increase in blood pressure, heart rate, and even sudden cardiac arrest.

Mixing this drug with molly or alcohol can cause one to feel carefree while combined with LSD and alcohol can enhance the effects of the hallucinations.

Hallucinogens mixed with MDMA can cause changes in the temperature, and if too much is taken, can lead to damaged organs and eventually overdose.

There are also drugs that when mixed with hallucinogen can also cause hallucinatory effects. Marijuana may increase the chances of experiencing bad trips.

This is why hallucinogens are considered dangerous. Mixing it with the wrong drugs will not only cause serious health problems, but can also result in death if the user is not careful.

Are Hallucinogens Addictive?

Some evidence suggests that there are hallucinogens that can be very addictive and when used over time, and the individual can develop tolerance.

One of the most common, non-addictive hallucinogens is LSD. However, it does create tolerance to the user if taken repeatedly over time. The misuse and addiction to DMT is currently unknown but it does not appear to develop any tolerance. PCP can be addictive and when the user decides to stop using, this could lead to excessive sweating, severe headaches and drug cravings.

Treatment Options for Hallucinogens

Treating hallucinogen addiction is usually done with behavioral therapy methods. There are no FDA-approved medications at the moment to treat this condition. This is why drug users are treated through various therapy techniques. There’s a lot of research and studying to find out if these therapies are effective for those who are addicted to hallucinogens.

Bottom line is, taking hallucinogens is downright dangerous, especially if you don’t know what side effects will occur. It could lead to your untimely death if you are not careful, and can destroy your mental health if abused over time. The best thing to do is to avoid experimenting with drugs this. If you value your health and life, saying no to drugs is the only policy you should follow.

Talk to Someone Who’s Been There. Talk to Someone Who Can Help. Scottsdale Recovery Center holds the highest accreditation (Joint Commission) and is Arizona’s premier rehab facility since 2007. Call 602-346-9142.

Источник: https://scottsdalerecovery.com/short-and-long-term-effects-of-hallucinogens/

Effects of Hallucinogens

The Short and Long Term Effects of Hallucinogens

The hallucinogen class of drugs causes people to sense nonexistent things. The brain thinks it sees something, hears a sound, feels a sensation or smells a scent that isn’t real.

Experts think the drugs cause hallucinations by disrupting communication between chemical systems in the brain and spinal cord. These areas of the nervous system are in charge of sensory perception.

The drugs also affect parts of the brain that control other vital functions, including sleep, hunger and mood. A subclass of hallucinogens called dissociative drugs makes people feel disconnected from theirbody or environment.

Hallucinogen use can cause a variety of short- and long-term health effects.

Short-Term Effects of Hallucinogens

In addition to causing hallucinations, hallucinogens cause diverse psychoactive effects. They can make people feel relaxed, high or energetic.

  • LSD can cause increased body temperature, appetite loss, numbness, weakness and tremors.
  • Psilocybin, the drug in magic mushrooms, can cause nervousness, paranoia and panic attacks.
  • Peyote’s active ingredient mescaline can cause high body temperature, coordination loss and sweating.
  • DMT can cause agitation, dizziness and muscular incoordination.
  • Numbness
  • Dizziness
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • High blood pressure
  • Rapid heartbeat
  • Memory loss
  • Panic
  • Paranoia
  • Aggression

Specific dissociative drugs also cause unique side effects. The effects of PCP include seizures, violent behavior and psychotic symptoms. Ketamine can cause sedation and amnesia. Salviaabuse can cause intense mood swings, including uncontrollable laughter.

Therapeutic use of dextromethorphan, a common ingredient in cough suppressants, is safe in low doses. But dextromethorphan abuse, a practice some people call robotripping, can cause

Bad Trips

People who use hallucinogens refer to their experiences with the drugs as “trips.” They call an experience that causes positive effects, such as happiness, heightened awareness and abstract thinking, a good trip.

Unpleasant side effects, such as anxiety, paranoia and panic, can lead to a bad trip. Bad trips are characterized by terrifying thoughts, loss of control and insanity.

Deaths from mescaline, mushroom or LSD overdoses are rare, according to the Drug Enforcement Administration. These drugs may increase the risk of death fromdangerous behavior, accidents or suicide. High doses of PCP or ketamine can cause death.

Ketamine can cause an exceptionally bad trip called a k-hole. People who have experienced a k-hole say they felt their consciousness disassociated from their body, according to Columbia University.

Mixing with Other Drugs

Mixing hallucinogens with other drugs can cause serious side effects. These effects depend on the type of drug, the dose and the method of use. Combining hallucinogens with stimulants, such as cocaine or amphetamines, can cause serious heart problems.Both types of drugs increase blood pressure and heart rate.

Some people mix molly and alcohol to feel more carefree. Others combine LSD and alcohol to enhance the hallucinatory effects. Mixing alcohol and MDMA can cause dangerous changes to body temperature, leading to organ damage and overdose.

Taking hallucinogens with other drugs that cause hallucinatory effects, such as marijuana, may increase the chances of having a bad trip. Hallucinations are unpredictable. Taking multiple drugs that disrupt the brain can cause serious health problems.

Long-Term Effects of Hallucinogens

Regular use of most hallucinogens leads to tolerance. When people develop tolerance to a drug, they require higher doses to feel the same effects. However, DMT does not seem to cause tolerance, according to the National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Hallucinogens that affect the same part of the brain cause cross-tolerance. That means someone taking LSD also becomes tolerant to mescaline or psilocybin. Mescaline is the psychoactive ingredient in peyote, and psilocybin is the psychoactive drug inmagic mushrooms.

Tolerance to hallucinogens usually fades quickly. Few hallucinogens produce traditional withdrawal symptoms. MDMA and PCP can be addictive and lead to uncontrollable behavior. People addicted to these drugs often need rehab to recover. Other hallucinogensdo not appear to be addictive.

The short-term effects of hallucinogen use last between one and 12 hours depending on the drug. However, other effects may persist for several days or weeks.

The long-term effects of ecstasy include confusion, depression, sleep problems and cravings. The long-term effects of other hallucinogens are not fully understood. However, two conditions can be caused by the drugs.

20144 Hallucinogens

The Short and Long Term Effects of Hallucinogens

Types of hallucinogens: LSD, mescaline, psilocybin, PCP, cannabis, ecstasy, ketamine, salvia and others.

The term hallucinogen refers to many different drugs, which are often called “psychedelic” drugs. While the effects of these drugs vary widely, all change the way people see, hear, taste, smell or feel, and affect mood and thought. At high doses, all may cause a person to hallucinate, or see, hear or feel things that aren’t really there.

Most of the hallucinogens used in North America belong to one of these six categories:

  • indolealkylamines, which includes LSD (d-lysergic acid diethlyamide, a semi-synthetic substance originally derived from “ergot,” a fungus that grows on rye and other grains), LSA (d-lysergic amide, from morning glory seeds), psilocybin and psilocin (from Psilocybe mushrooms) and DMT (dimethyltryptamine, from the bark of the Virola tree, and other sources)
  • phenylethylamines, which includes mescaline (found in peyote cactus), and “designer drugs” such as:
    • MDA (methylenedioxyamphetamine)
    • MDMA (ecstasy, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine)
    • PMA (paramethoxyamphetamine)
    • 2-CB (4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine)
    • STP (2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine)
    • TMA (trimethoxyamphetamine).
  • arylcycloalkylamines, such as PCP (phencyclidine) and ketamine
  • cannabinoids, especially THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), found in marijuana, hash and hash oil
  • anticholinergics, from the plant family Solanaceae, which includes deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) and jimsonweed (Datura stramonium)
  • the diterpene, salvinorin-A, from the plant Salvia divinorum.

Where does it come from?

Some hallucinogens come from mushrooms (psilocybin), cacti (mescaline) and other plants (cannabis, salvia). Of these, cannabis and psilocybin are almost always used in their natural form. Although LSD is used only in a synthesized form, a related drug, LSA, is found in nature. Other hallucinogens, such as MDMA and ketamine, are created in laboratories.

Who uses it?

Hallucinogens have been used since ancient times in religion, medicine, magic and prophecy. In the 1960s and 70s, hallucinogen use became a symbol of the counter-culture among young people in North America and Europe. In the 1990s, hallucinogen use was linked to the “rave” scene.

A 2007 survey of Ontario students in grades 7 to 12 reported that:

  • 3.5 per cent had used ecstasy at least once in the past year
  • 1.6 per cent had used LSD at least once in the past year
  • 0.7 per cent had used PCP at least once in the past year
  • 5.5 per cent had used other hallucinogens (such as psilocybin and mescaline) at least once in the past year.

A 2004 survey of Canadians (aged 15+) reported that:

  • 4.1 per cent had used ecstasy and 11.4 per cent had used LSD, PCP or other hallucinogens at least once in their lifetime
  • 1.1 per cent had used ecstasy and 0.7 per cent had used LSD, PCP or other hallucinogens at least once in the past year.

How does it make you feel?

How hallucinogens make you feel depends on:

  • how much you use
  • how often and how long you use
  • your mood, expectation and environment
  • your age
  • whether you have certain pre-existing medical or psychiatric conditions
  • whether you’ve taken any alcohol or other drugs (illegal, prescription, over-the-counter or herbal).

Hallucinogens cause mostly psychoactive, or mind-altering, effects, which can be mild to intense.

These effects vary from drug to drug, from person to person, from one drug-taking episode to the next, and can even change dramatically within one time of use.

Effects can range from ecstasy to terror, from mild distortion of the senses to full hallucinations (where people believe that drug-induced visions or other perceptions are real).

Different types of hallucinogens produce different effects; for example:

LSD produces a kaleidoscope of visual patterns and changes perception. People who take LSD usually know that the hallucinations are not real; however, the effects can appear real.

Ecstasy enhances mood and produces feelings of empathy and intimacy.

Ketamine causes an out-of-body feeling, which may be pleasant or terrifying.

Salvia causes intense, short-lived hallucinogenic effects, such as smelling sounds or hearing colours.

How long does the feeling last?

The effects of some hallucinogens, such as LSD, last for hours, while others, such as salvia, last only a short time.

Is it addictive?

Most people who use hallucinogens do so occasionally. Repeated use of hallucinogens such as LSD or ecstasy leads to tolerance, where the drug has reduced or no effect.

Sensitivity to the drug returns if the person stops using it for a period of time, and then starts again. Stopping use of hallucinogens does not usually cause symptoms of withdrawal.

However, people can develop psychological dependence, in which they feel they need the drug.

Is it dangerous?

Most of these drugs are illegal and unregulated, and may include toxins, or not even contain the drug they are sold as. For example, drugs sold as ecstasy are usually not pure MDMA, and have been found to contain other drugs, such as methamphetamine. Drugs sold as mescaline are almost always something else.

Hallucinogens affect perception and behaviour. Taking them may cause people to become disoriented, have poor judgment and take risks.

Many hallucinogens can have very unpleasant or toxic effects (e.g., jimsonweed, deadly nightshade). Hallucinogenic plants can be mistaken for other toxic or lethal plants, for example, mushrooms.

Although research is scarce, taking hallucinogens during pregnancy may affect the development of the baby, and increase the chance of miscarriage.

What are the long-term effects of using it?

Hallucinogen use may, on rare occasions, result in “flashbacks,” or replays of the drug experience, days, weeks or even years after the drug was taken. Some people who take hallucinogens feel depressed or anxious long after they took the drug.

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Источник: https://www.camh.ca/en/health-info/mental-illness-and-addiction-index/hallucinogens

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The Short and Long Term Effects of Hallucinogens

Hallucinogens are a class of drugs that cause hallucinations. Hallucinations are intense reality distortions experienced by an individual. This, for example, can result in an individual seeing images, feeling sensations and/or hearing sounds that seem real but do not exist.

Hallucinogens are typically divided into two categories: classic hallucinogens (i.e. LSD) and dissociative drugs (i.e. PCP). They can be found in mushrooms, some plants, and can also be man-made.

Research currently suggests that hallucinogens work by temporarily interrupting communication between one’s neurotransmitters that regulate one’s basic functions (body temperature, muscle control, sensory perception) in addition to the regulation of one’s mood, sexual behavior, hunger, and sleep.

When an individual has ingested hallucinogens he or she may experience unpredictable mood swings, as well as hallucinations.

Street Names

There are several street names that hallucinogenic go by some of which include the following:

  • Battery acid
  • California Sunshine
  • LSD
  • Acid
  • Hippie
  • Boomers
  • Loony toons
  • Cid
  • Blotter
  • Purple Heart
  • Yellow sunshine
  • Doses
  • Superman
  • Lucy
  • Window pane
  • Zen
  • Dots
  • Microdot
  • Golden Dragon
  • Tab
  • Heavenly Blue
  • Pane

Short-term General Effects

There are many shot-term effects an individual may experience when he or she ingests hallucinogens. Some of the possible effects include any combination of the following:

  • Changes in sense or perception of time
  • The mixing of one’s senses (i.e. hearing colors or seeing sounds)
  • Increased energy
  • Intensified sensory experiences
  • Nausea
  • Intensified feelings
  • Visual hallucinations
  • Increased heart rate
  • Tactile hallucinations
  • Auditory delusions

These effects will differ from individual to individual. Some abusers will experience many of the above effects and some few; it all depends on the person and the hallucinogen abused.

Long-term Effects

There are a myriad of possible long-term effects that can arise from abuse of hallucinogens. Some of them can include the following:

  • Hallucinations
  • Paranoia
  • Visual disturbances
  • HPPD (Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder)
  • Mood disturbances
  • Disorganized thinking
  • Psychosis
  • Symptoms that are commonly mistaken for neurological disorders ( a brain tumor or a stroke)

Since each person is different, the long-term effects of hallucinogen abuse will vary. The severity and longevity of the long-term effects will depend not only on the individual, but also on the type of hallucinogen abused, length of abuse and quantity abused.

Symptoms of Abuse

Similar to the symptoms that can occur when abusing other drugs, a tolerance for hallucinogens can develop quickly, which requires the individual to ingest greater amounts of the drug to achieve the same effect. Some of the possible symptoms of abuse can include any combination of the following:

  • Pupil dilation
  • Alterations in mood
  • Changes in the senses
  • Feeling detached from one’s body
  • Nausea
  • Changes in one’s body temperature
  • Vomiting
  • Memory loss
  • Delusions

The above are some of the possible examples that may be exhibited by an individual who abuses hallucinogens.

Detoxification

One of the first steps for an individual to overcome his or her hallucinogen addiction is to go through the detoxification process. This can be an extremely unpleasant experience, and physically uncomfortable.

It is recommended for an individual to seek medical guidance, if not done in an inpatient medical detoxification center.

There are many possibly dangerous side effects that can occur when an individual abruptly ceases using a drug that his or her body has become used to functioning with.

When being medically supervised through the detoxification process, the abuser will have access to twenty-four hour support to help with the physiological side effects that come with detoxification. Furthermore, the individual may need to be sedated for hostile or aggressive behavior, for which medical professionals are fully capable of assisting.

Withdrawal

Much the withdrawal from any abused substance that one’s system has become accustomed to withdrawal symptoms from hallucinogens also is ly to occur. As a hallucinogen drug leaves one’s system it is highly ly for one to experience physical and psychological discomforts and changes. Some of the possible withdrawal symptoms an individual may experience can include any of the following:

  • Depression
  • Muscle spasms
  • Loss of coordination
  • Violent behavior
  • Flashbacks (experiences the effects of the drug hours, days or even weeks after using)
  • Hyperthermia
  • Zombie- state
  • Diarrhea
  • Psychosis
  • Aggressive behavior
  • High blood pressure
  • Fear of going insane
  • Rapid heart rate
  • Hostility towards others
  • Permanent post-hallucinogenic perceptual disturbance

It is not uncommon for an individual to experience extreme discomfort when ridding oneself from hallucinogens.

Treatment

Subsequent to one’s detoxification and withdrawal processes it is essential for an individual struggling with a hallucinogen addiction to proceed with a follow-up drug rehabilitation program. As is true for recovering from any form of addiction, commitment and determination are crucial.

While there is no singular protocol for individuals attempting to recover from a hallucinogen addiction, there are many possible options that can prove to be helpful.

Initially, many individuals will need help with the potential psychological shifts he or she may experience during the detoxification and withdrawal phases, caused by the absence of the drug.

A medical professional may help by prescribing specific medications that can calm one’s body and mind through his or her withdrawal period. Many hallucinogen addicts also suffer from poly substance disorder, meaning that they abuse other substances in addition to hallucinogens.

In an inpatient or outpatient drug rehabilitation facility, addicts will be provided with the proper support to deal with addiction. Many will provide individual and group therapy, in which the addicted individual will learn to process and cope with his or her addiction.

Often skills and tools will also be taught to help individuals learn to live without using drugs for mind-altering, recreational reasons. Individuals will be provided with a safe environment to test out, implement and integrate the tools learned to help him or her remain sober.

Community-based support groups can also be extremely beneficial for individuals who are attempting to maintain their sobriety, and avoid relapse.

It is imperative to keep in mind that addiction does manifest overnight, nor will one’s recovery to his or her addiction be attained overnight. It takes serious commitment and diligence to achieve and maintain one’s sobriety.

Leaning on community based support groups can be cathartic and helpful for an individual to sustain his or her new sober life.

Источник: https://altacenters.com/portfolio/hallucinogens

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