- The 10 Major Branches or Subfields of Psychology Explained
- 1. Developmental Psychology
- 2. Child Psychology
- 3. Social Psychology
- 4. Abnormal Psychology
- 5. Cognitive Psychology
- 6. Clinical Psychology
- 7. Counseling and Guidance
- 8. Health Psychology
- 9. Industrial Psychology
- 10. Educational Psychology
- 20+ DIFFERENT FIELDS OF PSYCHOLOGY AND THEIR DEFINITION (MAJOR BRANCHES)
- Use and Significance of Subfields of Psychology:
- 1: Abnormal Psychology:
- 2: Biological Psychology:
- 3: Child Psychology:
- 4: Clinical Psychology:
- 5: Cognitive Psychology:
- 6: Comparative Psychology:
- 7: Community Psychology:
- 8: Counseling Psychology:
- 9: Developmental Psychology:
- 10: Educational Psychology:
- 11: Environmental Psychology:
- 12: Forensic Psychology:
- 13: Health Psychology:
- 14: Media Psychology:
- 15: Personality Psychology:
- 16: Social Psychology:
- 17. Family Psychology:
- 18. School Psychology:
- 19. Sports Psychology:
- 20. Cross-Cultural Psychology:
- 21. Experimental Psychology:
- 22. Industrial-Organizational Psychology:
- Branches of Psychology
- 10 Branches of Psychology
- Branches of Psychology – Courses & Eligibility
- Eligibility Criteria for BA Psychology
- Eligibility Criteria for BSc Psychology
- Clinical Psychology
- Abnormal Psychology
- Educational Psychology
- Cognitive Psychology
- Behavioural Psychology
- Forensic Psychology
- Occupational/Industrial Psychology
- Developmental Psychology
- Medical/Health Psychology
- Branches of Psychology: (Different Branches of Psychology)
- 1. Pure Branches:
- a. General psychology:
- b. Physiological psychology:
- c. Developmental psychology:
- d. Child psychology:
- e. Animal psychology:
- f. Abnormal psychology:
- g. Social psychology:
- h. Parapsychology:
- 2. Applied Branches:
- a. Educational psychology:
- b. Clinical psychology:
- c. Industrial psychology:
- d. Counselling psychology:
The 10 Major Branches or Subfields of Psychology Explained
Branches or subfields of psychology is increasing in recent years because of their broad areas. The branches of psychology will help us to understand why people think, feel, and act as they do.
Each branch of psychology needs a specific type of expertise to deal with. Even each field is a career opportunity for psychologists. Thus they are developing knowledge in the fields of psychology to expand their understanding of the insights of human behavior in different fields.
Psychology can be studied through two areas:
- Basic Area – A basic area of psychology concerns theoretical knowledge, principles, facts, and research. It conducts research in psychological processes such as learning, reasoning, memory, prejudice, emotion, etc.
- Applied Field – The applied field of psychology uses its application to various fields, where psychologists conduct research that tackles practical problems. They use psychology’s concepts, methods, and knowledge to solve human problems through researching, working in mental health centers, industries, school systems, medical centers, etc.
Now, let’s talk on,
1. Developmental Psychology
One of the important branches of psychology is developmental psychology, which falls under basic branches. Human development is life long process. Developmental psychologists study changing abilities from womb to tomb. It studies people during their life span as they grow and mature from conception to old age to death.
Developmental psychologists study quantitive and qualitative changes and stability in the physical, mental, emotional, and psychological domains. It reads the styles in which people vary as well as characteristics that rest honestly stable everywhere in life. The study of human development describes, explains, predicts, and modifies behavior.
2. Child Psychology
It also falls under the basic branches of psychology. Child psychology studies children from the prenatal period to adolescence describing how a particular period of life such as infancy, the pre-school years, or adolescence shapes a child’s behavior. The complete socialization features and pictures are presented in child psychology.
It points out the healthy growth of the physical, mental, emotional, moral, educational, and motor development of the child. Intellectual personality development including self-concept and genetic effects is a highly demanding study being carried nowadays in this branch of psychology.
3. Social Psychology
Social psychology is interested in understanding how individuals are influenced by other people. It tries to find out how individuals perceive the world and how those perceptions affect their behavior and behavior towards others.
Being a social animal, human development takes place in the context of other persons, parents, siblings, playmates, and school companions which is the socialization process. Social psychologists are concerned with the behavior of groups. Leaders, followers, crowds, communities, interpersonal interaction, intimate relationships are the subject matter of this branch.
4. Abnormal Psychology
Psychology studies not only the normal behavior but also the abnormal behavior of people. It includes the study of neurotic, psychotic, and other abnormal individuals marked by limited intelligence, emotional instability, personality disorganization, character defects, with their underlying causes and general principles to cure these abnormalities.
5. Cognitive Psychology
Cognitive psychology concerns with how we process, change, store, and retrieve information. Psychologists in this area are associated with intelligent actions thinking, learning, perceiving, planning, imagining, creating, dreaming, speaking, listening, and problem-solving.
Cognitive psychologists are trying to find out the answer to how we use information in remembering, reasoning, and solving problems. It focuses on how thought occurs, memory processes information stored and utilized.
6. Clinical Psychology
Clinical psychology comes under the applied branches of psychology. It is concerned with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of behavioral and emotional problems. It is a helping profession devoted to practical issues such as how to lead a happy marriage life, how to overcome anxiety or depression, and how to raise children, etc.
Clinical psychologists administer and interpret tests, provide psychotherapy, manage mental health programs, and conduct research. They also remedy many sorts of irregularities or psychological disorders.
Clinical psychologists are graduates in psychology and have obtained the degree of Ph.D. (Doctor of Philosophy) or Psy.D (Doctor of Psychology). They have completed an internship in clinical psychology.
7. Counseling and Guidance
It also falls under the applied branches of psychology. As a clinical psychologist, a counselor usually works in an educational setting in solving problems and giving advice.
The applied area of psychology is used for counseling people with emotional, educational, vocational, career, and personal problems. It tries to give services to people in distress and maladjustment.
It is a helping profession to develop insight and understanding to solve problems by one’s own efforts.
8. Health Psychology
Health psychology has been used to provide awareness and understanding toward a healthy attitude of the population. Physical health and sanitation, mental health programs, basic healthy atmosphere in dealing with behavior and behavioral problems are highlighted.
Health psychology sheds light on different tensions, frustrations, pressures, conflicts, hardships affecting the healthy growth of the human being. It focuses on diseases and prevention by exercising different techniques to reduce health hazards, such as relaxation diet, rest, sleep, etc. Even spiritualism and religion are important parts of health psychology.
9. Industrial Psychology
Industrial psychology is also known as organizational or personnel psychology. This applied branch of knowledge studies and advises behavior in the workplace. They use psychological concepts and methods to helps organizations and companies.
Industrial psychologists take advantage of psychological tests in selecting, hiring, placing, and training employees. They help the institutions in boosting morale, and productivity among employees by establishing good relationships between the workers. Organizational psychologists also help designing products and research assessing people’s responses to them.
10. Educational Psychology
The applied aspect of this branch of psychology has reformed approaches to education. Parents, teachers, students, and administrators profited from this branch of knowledge. What, how, when, to teach, advise, and train are the concerned issues.
Many elementary schools employ psychologists who are trained in child development, education, and clinical psychology so that children can profit from problems related to learning, behavioral, and emotional difficulties. They also assess intelligence, achievement, personality traits for children and counsel parents and teachers, to help children with the coping behaviors and adjustment process.
20+ DIFFERENT FIELDS OF PSYCHOLOGY AND THEIR DEFINITION (MAJOR BRANCHES)
20+ Different Fields of Psychology and their Definition
Psychology is a really huge field and is split into various branches. In this article, I’m discussing all of the important different fields of Psychology and their definition.
Within the earlier article, I’ve mentioned an “Introduction to psychology” and “Historical past of psychology” in which different folks have defined psychology their views.
We will’t merge all fields of psychology in one place, due to this fact; psychology is classified into many different branches. We will be looking all of them in this article.
Use and Significance of Subfields of Psychology:
Every type has its personal utilization and benefits and is relevant to the right place for the appropriate individual.
Different types of psychology have completely different researchers and psychologists that carry out some work and research for that specific and particular discipline.
This subdivision of the psychology discipline will assist us in understanding about different fields and carriers of psychology.
Now I’m going to discuss all branches of psychology and their definitions one after the other.
20+ DIFFERENT FIELDS OF PSYCHOLOGY AND THEIR DEFINITION
1: Abnormal Psychology:
The phrase “abnormal” means something uncommon or not regular or something that isn’t occurring in a daily manner.
Abnormality in behavior means the behavior that’s unusual and never the rule. Irregular behavior is also the behavior that doesn’t meet the demands of our society. These curious folks have to be handled instantly. So behaviors of all such persons are studied in Abnormal Psychology.
This is the branch of psychology that deals with folks’s uncommon behaviors. The psychologist tries to search out out the explanation and components of their abnormality after which they discover the very best approach to solve their issues and to make them normal.
These patients have to be treated within the medical background.
2: Biological Psychology:
We all know that Biology is mainly referred to as the study of life.
Combining biology and psychology is known as biological psychology. Additionally it is called physiological psychology and psychobiology.
In this, the behavior is studied the biological perspective. Right here behavior is linked to the nervous system.
Biological psychologist studies how the mind functions to understand human behavior.
3: Child Psychology:
Child psychology is the branch of psychology that primarily deals with the mentality and behavior of a kid. Child psychology deals with physical, psychological, emotional and social improvement.
Amongst all of the branches of psychology, child psychology is without doubt one of the most complicated branches of psychology.
Child psychologists, Can works within the following other ways:
- Abnormal baby psychologist.
- Developmental Psychologists.
- School and Academic Psychologists.
4: Clinical Psychology:
By the word clinical I mean observation, remedy, and therapy of a struggling affected person. Clinical psychology is important according to the medical perspective.
Clinical psychology is without doubt one of the branches of psychology that mainly deals with the involvement of an individual’s psychological illness and his/her irregular behavior.
These patients are handled by Psychiatrist rather than by Psychologists because Psychiatrists treats the affected person with the assistance of medicines.
I drastically advocate this field to those that have an interest within the field of drugs and never have sufficient approaches to involve themselves in different medical fields.
5: Cognitive Psychology:
By the phrase cognitive I mean one thing that’s associated to cognition. Cognition is mainly the method by which we perceive somebody’s ideas, perceptions, emotions, and so on. by means of experiments and observations.
Cognitive psychology is mainly the study of the psychological improvement of an individual by which we are able to verify their memory power, their views and opinions regarding issues, their creativity in numerous ways, and their ideas over different areas.
6: Comparative Psychology:
Altogether Comparative psychology refers to the examination of animals. In comparative psychology, we examine the psychology of animals. We examine the psychological stage and behavior of animals aside from human beings.
Many of the fields of psychology examine human nature and behavior whereas comparative psychology is the highlighted field that sometimes studies the character and psychology of animals which can be typically linked and associated to humans.
7: Community Psychology:
All my readers might have aware of the term neighborhood or community. The community is mainly the society in which we live.
Community psychology tells us how our society and human beings are correlated with one another. Society has an excellent affect on a person.
Community psychology primarily targets the issues of society and lots of different issues that may instantly or not directly affect the lifetime of a person.
Community psychology focuses on the safety of the rights of its members and tries to find out the solutions for his or her issues.
8: Counseling Psychology:
By the word counseling I mean to offer recommendation to somebody or to advocate something.
Counseling psychology focuses on the normal or common issues of an individual for instance taking suggestions within the selection of a career.
Counseling psychologists additionally assist people who find themselves under stress or severely depressed. They assist them to come back traumas and take them to the path where they’ll stay happily different regular folks.
9: Developmental Psychology:
In Developmental psychology, we examine the event of people over their full life cycle. It doesn’t include the individual’s physical development and improvement but also its mental, social, emotional, persona, and mental improvement.
Developmental psychology is basically the cognitive examination of humans that how and why human beings change with the passage of time.
10: Educational Psychology:
Educational psychology is the branch of psychology that scientific research concerning the processes of human learning. It research human learning from each aspects expample from cognitive and behavioral.
It research human execution in learning.
11: Environmental Psychology:
Environmental psychology basically examine the interconnection between the surroundings and human beings. It research how does surroundings create its affect on human beings.
12: Forensic Psychology:
Forensic psychology is that branch of psychology that deals with the understanding of each psychology and law on the same time.
It’s basically the relation between psychology and social justice. That is mainly concerned in criminal type of issues.
13: Health Psychology:
Health psychology mainly deals with our health sectors. It research that how our behavior and social components can have an excellent impact on human well being.
The health psychologist additionally research the psychological situation of a affected person that if an individual is affected by some illness and having proper treatment then why that individual isn’t following correct medicines as prescribed by the medical doctors.
14: Media Psychology:
Media psychology primarily targets an interaction between human behavior and media. Mainly, media psychologists examine how do folks link with media and the influence of media on our society.
15: Personality Psychology:
Personality Psychology is one of the branches of psychology that research how one’s character and its variety through every particular person.
Personality psychologists examine the properties of 1’s emotions, ideas, feelings, expressions that identify that individual as unique.
16: Social Psychology:
Social psychology is that field of psychology which examine the interaction of society and humans. It studies how the character of human beings is influenced by its environment or social surroundings.
17. Family Psychology:
Family psychology is a broad and wider subject that’s in some way similar to applied psychology. Family psychology matters so much in order to have a strong relationship with our household.
It teaches people of the family that how can they handle and adjust themselves in a given surroundings.
Family psychology teaches us to resolve the issues of our relations with the help of which we are able to create a powerful bonding and community with them.
Family psychologists are mainly concerned with the better brought up of your loved ones. A newly married couple mainly prefers to seek guidance from family psychologists to be able to live their lives peacefully.
18. School Psychology:
School psychology is considered to be skilled psychology. School psychology performs a positive role within the betterment of our schools, our society, and particularly for our grown-ups in our schools, school psychology is applicable for each students and teachers.
From the student’s perspective, school psychology holds nice significance. School psychology not only improves their studying capabilities but in addition improves their social and emotional behaviors.
From the teacher’s perspective, it’s much more vital. It tells the teachers that how they’ll train students effectively. Its teaching style, instantly and not directly, impacts the students.
School psychology is important for a teacher because a teacher is responsible for its student’s academic success and professional success.
19. Sports Psychology:
Sports psychology is mainly involved together with your mental health and your physical health that’s vital from the sports activities perspective.
With the assistance of sports psychology, a sense of teamwork develops in your character and also you behave better together with your coaches and captains.
Sports psychology makes you sharp-minded and lets you focus in your goal. It will increase your focus energy. It teaches you that the right way to hit stress and stress.
20. Cross-Cultural Psychology:
Cross-Cultural is a newly arising branch within the field of psychology. It mainly studies the behaviors of human beings from a cultural perspective.
It primarily highlights the differences and similarities between cultures and then examines a person from a cultural perspective.
21. Experimental Psychology:
Experimental psychology is especially involved with the exact, logical and methodical investigation of suggestions. It deals with our feelings in addition to our mental exertion.
22. Industrial-Organizational Psychology:
It’s considered applied psychology and applies certain rules to a sector. It mainly works for the betterment and well-being of an organization.
Industrial-organizational psychologists figures out the behavior of staff and their concern and dedication in direction of their work.
After studying this article, I hope you’re well-known for different fields of psychology. Every field has its own purposes and is relevant to its particular space.
Leave a comment when you’ve got any questions in your mind or you need extra clarification to any of the fields of Psychology. Thanks.
Branches of Psychology
Known as the study of human mind and behaviour, Psychology aims to explore the cognitive, conative, subconscious, conscious and implicit or explicit aspects of human behaviour.
Being an area of study which has its roots in almost every other discipline, there are several branches of Psychology which are unique combinations of different subjects such as Education, Science, Crime, Health, Development etc.
For those who wish to establish a career in psychology, these interdisciplinary specialisations offer numerous psychology courses to choose from. Through this blog, we will unravel some of the prominent branches of Psychology and how they strive to understand human behaviour in all its multifarious aspects!
Must Read: Best Psychology Books
10 Branches of Psychology
Here are the main 10 branches of psychology:
- Clinical Psychology
- Abnormal Psychology
- Educational Psychology
- Cognitive Psychology
- Behavioural Psychology
- Forensic Psychology
- Occupational/Industrial Psychology
- Developmental Psychology
- Medical/Health Psychology
Branches of Psychology – Courses & Eligibility
Here are the major eligibility criteria for different courses of psychology:
Eligibility Criteria for BA Psychology
Varsities across the world have set some basic conditions that candidates need to fulfil before getting a place in the course. Enlisted below are the requirements to study BA Psychology:
- Applicants must have completed their class 12th from a recognized board of examination. Transcript of the same will be required at the time of application.
- Candidates must possess a valid score of any of the following language proficiency tests – IELTS, TOEFL, PTE, etc.
- Students need to have subject proficiency exam scores as well. Usually, the SAT and ACT are widely accepted by most of the universities.
Eligibility Criteria for BSc Psychology
Applicants interested in pursuing BSc Psychology in India have to fulfil the following eligibility requirements:
- Applicants should have cleared 10+ 2 from the recognized board
- Applicants must secure a minimum of 50% inboards
- Applicant’s age should be atleast of 17 years
Using the intricate concepts of science, Clinical Psychology studies mental disorders and aims to implement various therapeutic methods to help the concerned patient in efficiently tackling them.
It understands, predicts and relieves the psychological problems of the patients using scientific psycho-therapeutic methods.
A clinical psychologist observes the emotional, behavioural as well as biological aspects of the human body and thus utilises psychotherapy to assist their patients in dealing with their mental issues.
Have a look at Clinical Psychology Courses
Concerned with Psychopathology and abnormal behaviour, this branch of psychology encompasses the study of a wide range of mental and psychological disorders such as OCD, depression, personality disorders, etc.
It is amongst the prominent clinical branches of psychology and focuses on abnormal human behaviour which is different from the normal curve of human behaviour and thus results in various implications on the individual’s mind.
Educational Psychology simply refers to the scientific study of how people learn and retain new information.
This prominent branch of Psychology usually deals with the issues that an individual faces while learning something and also studies the unsystematic behavioural pattern of the adolescents.
Educational psychologists work on formulating efficient learning methods to help students and teachers work together in an interactive and engaging learning environment.
Related Read: MA Psychology
Cognitive Psychology is one of the most famous branches of psychology and involves the detailed study of the thought-processing of the human mind from its thinking abilities and memories to problem-solving skills.
It aims to understand how people think, remember, communicate, perceive, learn, etc.
Clinical psychologists generally examine how the human brain processes information and thus assist people in sharpening their memory retention and problem-solving skills.
Check Out: NCERT Psychology Class 12 Syllabus
Based in the idea of how all types of behaviours are acquired through conditioning, Behavioural Psychology centrally assesses how different types of conditioning can lead to varied results in behaviours. It was one of the popular branches of Psychology extensively applied in initial phase of 20th century and is used as a mainstay in therapies, education and various other areas.
The interdisciplinary amalgamation of psychology with criminology and law enforcement and regulations is known as Forensic Psychology.
Also regarded as Legal Psychology, it involves the assessment of a crime scene, conducting research on what happened and how as well as analyzing evidence, interviewing witnesses and coming up with inferences to present in the court.
Forensic Psychologists use the applications of cognitive sciences within the criminal justice system.
Quick Read: BA Psychology
One of the most popular branches of Psychology, Industrial Psychology deals with resolving organizational issues that occur in a workplace environment.
Often employees face certain issues which can lead to inefficiency or lack of motivation, thus, Occupational/Industrial Psychologists help the organizations in finding better ways to implement greater efficiency and employee retention.
Every human being goes through a variety of physical as well as psychological changes over their life span. The area which involves the study of different types of changes in a human mind and body through various stages is known as Developmental Psychology.
The major focus of this branch of Psychology is on the innate mental abilities of the human mind and how their corresponding environment affects their development and growth.
Individuals from all the walks of life from infants, children, teenagers to adults and elderly are examined in terms of the growth and development of their psychological and emotional bent of mind.
A notable one amongst the vast range of branches of psychology, Health Psychology is concerned with how social conditions and environment impact the health and wellness of an individual.
Health Psychologists are often misinterpreted as Physicians but a Medical Physician looks into the biological cause of a disease whereas a Medical Psychologist delves deeper into exploring the different psychological factors that are influencing the health of their patient.
Related Read: Psychology Class 11 CBSE Syllabus
As a highly interdisciplinary specialization, Biopsychology explores the impact of thought processes, feelings and behaviors on the brain, neurons and nervous systems.
As an emerging sub-field amongst the different branches of Psychology, it is extensively connected with various other disciplines Biology, Neuroscience, Physiology, Experimental Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, to name a few.
Apart from the aforementioned branches of psychology, take a look at some other prominent ones:
- Social Psychology
- Animal Psychology
- Criminal Psychology
- Counselling Psychology
- Community Psychology
- Evolutionary Psychology
- Comparative Psychology
- Sports Psychology
- Cross-Cultural Psychology
- Experimental Psychology
- Personality Psychology
- School Psychology
- Applied Psychology
- Physiological Psychology
- Para Psychology
- Military Psychology
- Political Psychology
- Positive Psychology
- Humanistic Psychology
- Consumer Psychology
- Engineering Psychology
- Media Psychology
Hopefully, this blog assisted you in exploring the varied branches of psychology. Aspiring to pursue a degree in Psychology? Book an e-meeting with our Leverage Edu experts and we will guide you in choosing the right course and university as well as helping you throughout the admission process to ensure that you get successfully shortlisted!
Branches of Psychology: (Different Branches of Psychology)
Different Branches of Psychology are as follows:
Psychology studies and explains the behaviour of entire living organisms. The term behaviour includes the cognitive, Conative and affective, conscious, subconscious or unconscious, implicit or explicit. It also includes the behaviour of people from infancy to old age, the normal as well as abnormal.
It is very difficult to understand all these aspects of behaviour in one sphere. Hence, in order to make it convenient to study, understand and access the behaviour at different fields of life, psychology is divided into different branches. These branches are broadly divided into two categories viz., pure and applied.
1. Pure Branches:
Pure branches provide the theoretical frame work of the subject. These branches deal with formulation of principles, theories and suggest different methods for the assessment of behaviour. The pure branches also suggest certain techniques for the modification of problematic behaviour.
The important pure branches are:
a. General psychology:
This branch deals with the fundamental rules, principles and theories of psychology in relation to the study of behaviour of normal adult human beings. It explains various psychological processes sensations, perceptions, emotions, learning, intelligence, personality, etc.
b. Physiological psychology:
This branch describes the biological basis of behaviour. There is a close relationship between body and mind; the functions of each other are mutually influenced. The functioning of the brain, nervous system, endocrine glands and their relation to cognitive, Conative and affective behaviour is explained in this branch of psychology.
c. Developmental psychology:
Human life passes through various stages of development from conception to old age. This branch explains the growth and development of various processes in relation to behaviour.
d. Child psychology:
Childhood extends from 2 to 12 years. This is a crucial period in the life. Future life depends upon development during childhood. Growth and development will be rapid during this stage. Child psychology deals with these aspects.
e. Animal psychology:
This branch deals with behaviour of animals. Many psychological experiments are conducted to know the functioning of mind in animals. Animals rats, dogs, chimpanzees, pigeons, guinea pigs, cats are some of the animals used for experimentation.
Findings of these experiments are many times generalized to human behaviour also.
f. Abnormal psychology:
Today the life is complex. The individual is facing a lot of competition and experiencing frustrations and conflicts. Constant pressures in life are leading to psychological abnormalities. Abnormal psychology deals with various kinds of mental disorders, their symptoms and causes.
g. Social psychology:
Human being is a social animal. Naturally the behaviour of an individual is influenced by society and in turn influences the society. Social psychology deals with interrelationships of people among themselves, s and diss of people, attitudes and interests, the prejudices and social distances people have, group behaviour, group cohesiveness, group conflicts, etc.
Some of the psychological experiences are beyond the reach of 5 sense organs. That is why they are called extra sensory perceptions (ESP) or sixth sense. Some of the phenomena studied in ESP are as follows:
This is referred to as television, which is seeing the distant things mentally. We perceive at times some situations or things without the help of our eyes. In total – seeing things which happen beyond our visual field through mind is called clairvoyance.
Transformations of emotions from one person to another person who is in a far of place. For example, a person who is in death bed remembering his close relative may be experienced by the concerned person who is far away from him.
Moving the objects without direct contact through power of mind is called Psychokinesis. For example, in Mahabharata, Shakuni could move dice with his power of mind.
Knowing the future happenings well in advance. At times people will gain the knowledge of future called precognition. For example, some accident or disaster that may take place after sometime will be known before time.
This is otherwise called rebirth. There are some instances reported where people remember their previous life details.
vi. Contacting souls:
There are some reports that the souls of dead people are contacted through people called Mediums. These Mediums use a plate called Planchette or Ouija board and establish contact with souls.
2. Applied Branches:
Applied branches deal with the application of psychological principles and techniques for approaching the problems in different fields of life.
a. Educational psychology:
This is the most important field where psychological principles are applied. In the field of education ‘learner’ is the focal point. Other aspects management, teachers, teaching and learning aids are all meant for learners.
Learners differ in their abilities, hence they need different approaches of teaching, learning material, etc. This branch addresses to the problems and improvement in teaching and learning processes.
b. Clinical psychology:
This branch deals with the therapeutic aspect of mental disorders. There are many types of mental illness requiring varied types of therapies chemotherapy, psychotherapy, recreational and occupational therapies, behaviour therapy, etc.
c. Industrial psychology:
Human beings are different from machines. They will have many problems in their work place adjustment, safety, security, health, financial and such other problems.
Both the management and workers need to cooperate in dealing with such problems.
Industrial psychology seeks application of psychological principles, theories and techniques for the study of all these problems and the industrial environment.
d. Counselling psychology:
Mental disorders may not be completely and easily cured just by drugs and other physical therapies.
In addition to other therapies, these patients need counselling also. Counselling is a process in which an interaction takes place between a trained counselor and a client. This branch also helps people to overcome adjustment problems.
In addition to the above, there are many other applied branches military psychology, legal psychology/criminal psychology, political psychology, etc.
In this way, psychology has broadened its scope today and gaining more and more importance. It may be expected that in days to come, there cannot be any field of life without the application of psychological principles.
Particularly in the field of medicine, for doctors and nurses the knowledge of psychology is very useful and also essential.