Substance Use, Mental Health Problems on the Rise for Those With Obesity

Содержание
  1. The relationship between mental health and obesity
  2. Why is this so important?
  3. The relationship between mental health and obesity is complex
  4. Signs and symptoms of poor nutrition, and how it is linked to mental health recovery
  5. What can be done in a GP consultation?
  6. Educating patients on good nutrition and mental wellbeing
  7. Carbohydrate
  8. Iron
  9. B vitamins
  10. IBS, probiotics and FODMAP
  11. The influence of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)
  12. The Relationship Between Substance Abuse And Obesity
  13. What Is The Relationship Between Obesity And Substance Abuse?
  14. The Stigma Of Obesity And Addiction
  15. Substance Abuse, Obesity, And The Brain
  16. Sugary, Fatty And Salty Foods Are Drugs
  17. Diet, Withdrawal, And Relapse
  18. Risk Factors Of Addiction And Obesity
  19. The Co-Occurrence Of Addiction And Obesity
  20. Obesity And Alcohol Abuse
  21. Health Risks Of Obesity And Substance Abuse
  22. Low Quality Of Life
  23. Treating Obesity And Substance Abuse
  24. Behavioral Therapy
  25. Medications
  26. Support Groups
  27. Inpatient Rehab For Comorbid Obesity And Addiction
  28. COVID-19 and Your Health
  29. Chronic kidney disease
  30. Chronic liver disease
  31. Chronic lung diseases
  32. Dementia or other neurological conditions
  33. Diabetes (type 1 or type 2)
  34. Down syndrome
  35. Heart conditions
  36. HIV infection
  37. Immunocompromised state (weakened immune system)
  38. Mental health conditions
  39. Overweight and obesity
  40. Pregnancy
  41. Sickle cell disease or thalassemia
  42. Smoking, current or former
  43. Solid organ or blood stem cell transplant
  44. Stroke or cerebrovascular disease, which affects blood flow to the brain
  45. Substance use disorders
  46. Tuberculosis
  47. Actions You Can Take
  48. Seek care when needed
  49. Continue medications and preventive care
  50. Accommodate dietary needs and avoid triggers

The relationship between mental health and obesity

Substance Use, Mental Health Problems on the Rise for Those With Obesity

This month we spoke to Arti Dhokia, Advanced Mental Health and Gastroenterology Dietitian at Priory Hospital Woodbourne, about the relationship between mental health and obesity. Arti specialises in eating disorders, spotting the early signs of disordered eating, weight gain/loss management, and has a particular interest in obesity management.

We explore the links between ‘food and mood’, what the signs and symptoms of poor nutrition are and how it is linked to mental health recovery, the effects that mental health medication can have on weight, and what particular foods can help to improve wellbeing.

Why is this so important?

Despite there being a number of demographic variables that could affect the direction and/or strength of this link, including socioeconomic status, level of education, age, gender and ethnicity, a 2010 systematic review highlighted a two-way association between depression and obesity. The review found that people who were obese had a 55% increased risk of developing depression over time, whereas people experiencing depression had a 58% increased risk of becoming obese.

It is estimated that the NHS spent £6.1 billion on overweight and obesity-related ill-health from 2014 to 2015.

  Failing to address the challenge posed by the obesity epidemic will place an even greater burden on NHS resources.

This emphasises the importance of spotting the early signs of disordered eating as well as carefully considering the influence of mental health on obesity.

The relationship between mental health and obesity is complex

It has become increasingly clear that obesity may also be a side effect of medications used to manage mental health issues. Increased appetite or overwhelming lethargy can both contribute to undesired weight gain and the associated long-term consequences.

Moreover, the development of co-morbid conditions such as diabetes or joint pain can significantly reduce quality of life. As medication is often an essential element of treatment, diet and lifestyle changes should be first-line interventions for managing weight.

General healthy eating guidelines, although indispensable, may alone not be effective in precipitating change in this patient group. Additional education is often required, to enable patients to develop a greater understanding of the relationship between food and mood, in order to make small but meaningful changes.

For example, serotonin is made from the amino acid tryptophan, which is better absorbed with carbohydrate-rich foods, which goes some way to explain ‘carbohydrate cravings’ and the excessive consumption of sweet and comforting carbohydrate foods, to boost mood.

However, evidence to show that an increase in carbohydrate consumption can improve mood in the long-term, is currently lacking.

The short-term reward associated with these foods can contribute to excess weight gain, and consolidate habitual behaviours that patients may struggle to change if no intervention is offered.

Improvements in both dietary intake and one’s relationship with food will ly result in reduced weight gain and improved mental health, which in turn is ly to improve compliance with medication.

Signs and symptoms of poor nutrition, and how it is linked to mental health recovery

The association between poor nutrition and anxiety disorders is well documented and there are many signs and symptoms a GP can look out for when making as assessment as to whether a patient may have disordered eating:

  • Loose or tight clothes, belts, jewellery
  • Being tired and less energetic
  • Not being as capable at performing activities of daily living
  • Being less physically active e.g. not being able to walk as far or as quickly as before
  • Changes in mood, such as becoming depressed and lethargic
  • Getting ill often, and taking a long time to recover
  • Delayed wound healing
  • Poor concentration

It is important to remember that weight loss or weight gain can be due to many different reasons – weight monitoring in patients is very important, and unintended weight loss should be a red flag.

What can be done in a GP consultation?

  • Weight monitoring in patients taking mental health medication is essential – intervention should ideally begin as soon as weight increases are noted
  • Ask questions around changes in appetite
  • Have discussions around the relationship between food consumption and mood. This can help to start discussions around food choices and comfort eating
  • Attempt to gain input from family and carers, if they are attending the GP consultation with the patient. This is invaluable as it is well documented that patients ‘under-report’, when asked what they are eating

Educating patients on good nutrition and mental wellbeing

Diet is a low risk, cost-effective and modifiable risk factor when considering mental health recovery. GPs should be encouraged and supported to test people fornutritional deficiencies if they suspect that their mental health problems could be linked to poor diet, and to prescribe supplements if there is a deficiency.

Carbohydrate

The ability to concentrate comes from the adequate supply of energy to the brain; up to 25% of our total glucose intake is used by the brain. It is thought that a low carbohydrate diet can lead to low mood.

With the rise in popularity of ketogenic diets (high protein/high fat), it is important that patients suffering or recovering from mental health issues are aware of the role of carbohydrates in brain function and absorption of tryptophan for serotonin production. 

These patients may be particularly susceptible to the enticement of fad dieting, as they may have gained weight from mental health medication and have reduced self-esteem as a result.

Iron

Low levels of iron and the resulting reduction in oxyhaemoglobin can lead to patients feeling tired, weak and lethargic. This is ly to significantly impact on an individual’s self-efficacy and mood. The risk of anaemia is reduced with adequate intakes of iron, particularly from red meat, poultry and fish. Vegetarian sources are found in beans, pulses and fortified breakfast cereals.

It may be helpful to ask about an anaemic patient’s consumption of tea, as tannin in tea reduces iron absorption. Avoiding tea with meals can be helpful, and drinking orange juice with iron containing foods even more so, as this will help to increase absorption.

B vitamins

Deficiencies in B vitamins can increase the feeling of tiredness, and cause patients to feel depressed and irritable. Fortified foods include wholegrain cereals and animal protein foods such as meat, fish, eggs and dairy.

B vitamin deficiency is common amongst vegans.

The Vegan Society states that the ‘Veganuary’ campaign, where people eat vegan for the month of January, grew by 183% in 2018, with a whopping 168,500 participants.

With veganism becoming a rising trend, it is imperative that the risk of B vitamin deficiency and supplementation is discussed for those with at risk or with a history of mental health disorders.

IBS, probiotics and FODMAP

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with higher levels of mood disorders, anxiety, and other psychiatric conditions.

IBS reportedly affects up to 23% of people around the world, and although IBS is not fully understood, symptoms appear to result from a disturbance in the brain-gut axis—the line of communication that exists between the brain and the gastrointestinal tract—and may be underpinned by disruptions in the microbiome-immune interface.

The current state of the gut microbiome can be preserved by improving dietary fibre and diversity of foods to promote microbial diversity.

The gold standard for IBS management is the Low FODMAP diet for IBS, which reduces fermentation in the bowel, and allows the gut respite from ongoing fermentation by omitting long chain carbohydrates from the diet, delivered under the supervision of a specialist dietitian. With a 71% success rate of satisfactory symptom reduction at one year (as reported by Kings College London), the FODMAP diet has provided a much needed framework for IBS treatment in primary care.

The influence of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)

Dietary management of IBS can improve symptoms significantly, however this is most effective when placed alongside psychological therapies such as CBT. This treatment allows the patient to understand root causes of disordered eating and teaches them how to cope better with anxiety and depression, which may lead to over-eating.

The British Society of Gastroenterology recommends psychological therapy alongside FODMAP diet as first-line treatment when the patient has a history of anxiety, panic attacks, or depression.

Источник: https://www.priorygroup.com/blog/the-relationship-between-mental-health-and-obesity

The Relationship Between Substance Abuse And Obesity

Substance Use, Mental Health Problems on the Rise for Those With Obesity

Substance abuse can lead to addiction, or a substance use disorder (SUD), which is defined by compulsive drug use despite harmful consequences. Obesity is a disorder involving too much body fat, or being substantially overweight, and affects nearly a third of all American adults. Both disorders are prevalent diseases associated with social stigma and discrimination.

Researchers and scientists are beginning to understand the relationship between substance abuse and obesity. Both disorders are related to how the brain responds to reward.

When people use drugs or alcohol, they temporarily feel good or experience pleasure. The same is true for when people eat food.

While each disorder is different, they both affect areas of the brain that make it difficult to stop overeating or abusing drugs or alcohol.

What Is The Relationship Between Obesity And Substance Abuse?

While it’s unclear if obesity leads to substance abuse, or vice versa, there is a complex relationship between the two.

Research shows there is a connection between substance abuse and obesity in the following areas:

  • biology and genetics
  • brain functioning
  • environmental/developmental risk factors
  • health risks
  • intense urges and cravings
  • social circumstances
  • poor quality of life
  • social stigma and discrimination

The unfortunate truth about both substance abuse and obesity is the harsh stigma attached to each disorder.

The Stigma Of Obesity And Addiction

Both obesity and addiction are stigmatized and dismissed as disorders of poor self-control. People chalk up these conditions as self-inflicted bad choices. But do people suffering from addiction want to be addicted to drugs or alcohol? Do people with obesity want to be obese?

No one chooses to suffer from these debilitating and life-threatening disorders.

The stigma regarding obesity and addiction ignores one simple fact: to exhibit self-control, certain parts of the brain must be working properly to regulate our behavior. Nora Volkow, the director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), compares addiction and obesity to driving a car without brakes. No matter how hard you try, you won’t be able to stop.

Substance Abuse, Obesity, And The Brain

The brain is a complex, machine- organ that determines everything we do. From behavior to feeling, the brain dictates our every move, thought and action.

Brain functioning is similar for obesity and addiction because both disorders increase dopamine in the brain.

There are profound similarities in the reward centers of the brain, for example, between an obese individual and an individual addicted to cocaine.

Dopamine is a chemical that signals reward in our brains. Whenever a person uses drugs or eats tasty food, dopamine levels go up. This surge in dopamine also affects other areas of the brain relating to self-control. When suffering from these disorders, the ability to control strong urges relating to food or drugs is compromised.

Our brains are hardwired to respond to rewards, which motivates our behavior and actions. For humans, gaining rewards is an essential function of survival. We eat food to maintain health and energy, and the taste of food is rewarding. Sex is pleasurable, but also produces children and is essential for human survival. Without reward, survival is compromised.

Sugary, Fatty And Salty Foods Are Drugs

Food, or the prospect of food, is everywhere. Just seeing a donut or smelling a hamburger causes the brain to predict you will eat a hamburger soon, increasing dopamine levels in anticipation of the reward. Just seeing it, smelling it, or being near it makes you want to eat it.

Once you eat, you feel full and satisfied, and eating more is no longer rewarding.

But, the problem is many of the foods we’re bombarded with don’t create that satiated feeling of fullness and satisfaction. Foods rich in sugar, fat, and salt can trigger compulsive eating in almost any person, and severely mess with the dopamine levels in the brain.

Highly rewarding foods, many substances of abuse, produce short-lasting and intense feelings of pleasure. This increase in dopamine affects the ability to control strong urges to eat tasty and delicious foods, or to abuse drugs or alcohol. Obesity, drug addiction, disrupts the systems in the brain that balance immediate reward and need with what we need to survive.

Diet, Withdrawal, And Relapse

Dieting usually requires abstinence from eating high-calorie foods. Unsuccessful dieting often leads to excessive amounts of overeating or bingeing on foods with high fat or sugar. This pattern is similar to withdrawal and relapse caused by substance use disorders (SUDs).

Certain triggers, underlying stress or major life events, can lead to relapse. This is true for both overeating during a diet and for those in recovery from substance abuse and addiction. Compulsive behavior, overeating or using drugs, cycles between withdrawal and relapse, which suggests similar brain functioning.

Because similar functioning occurs in the brain for people with obesity and substance abuse problems, they also share similar risk factors.

Risk Factors Of Addiction And Obesity

While it’s impossible to predict the causes of these conditions, the following factors increase the risk of developing each disorder:

  • Genetics: The genes that people are born with, or their biology, can increase the risk of addiction if there is a family history of substance abuse or mental illness. For obesity, genetics affect how much body fat can be stored and where it goes in the body, also playing a role in how the body burns calories and converts food into energy.
  • Social Circumstances/Environment: Peer pressure, sexual assault or abuse, stress and parental guidance can increase the lihood of substance use and addiction. Children born from obese parents may imitate similar eating habits or a lack of physical exercise, with general family lifestyles increasing the risk of obesity.
  • Developmental Track: The earlier a person abuses drugs or alcohol, the more ly they are to develop an addiction because their brains are still developing. As a person grows up, a less active lifestyle, as well as hormonal changes, can lead to obesity. As a child develops into adulthood, the interaction between genetics and social circumstances increases the risk of both obesity and substance abuse.

The Co-Occurrence Of Addiction And Obesity

The co-occurrence of addiction and obesity is unclear and requires more research. Some studies show it’s unly for stimulants, cocaine and amphetamines, to co-occur with obesity. But other substances of abuse, alcohol, are more ly to develop into an addiction in obese persons.

Obesity And Alcohol Abuse

Excessive alcohol use and obesity are among the leading causes of death in the United States. The connection between alcohol abuse and obesity is complex and under-researched, but heavy drinking, and binge-drinking is more ly linked to obesity than moderate to light alcohol use.

After drinking heavily, people may eat more. It’s unclear whether alcohol abuse leads to eating, but heavy drinking has shown to cause more intense cravings for food. Alcohol intoxication can change someone’s perception of appetite, meaning they may think they’re hungry when surrounded by options for food.

It’s also unclear whether alcohol abuse directly leads to weight gain. Studies have produced conflicting results, as some studies suggest long-term alcohol use may lead to obesity, while others saw no evidence to support such findings.

Overall, obesity is a complex condition determined by multiple factors, and it’s very difficult to determine if alcohol, or other substances of abuse, can lead to this condition.

Health Risks Of Obesity And Substance Abuse

Both obesity and substance abuse are major health concerns. To avoid the health risks associated with each condition, it’s imperative a person enter treatment or call for help.

Health risks of obesity can include:

  • cancer
  • fatty liver tissue
  • heart disease
  • high blood pressure
  • kidney disease
  • pregnancy issues
  • type 2 diabetes

Health risks associated with substance abuse and addiction may include:

  • cancer
  • heart disease
  • hepatitis B and C
  • HIV/Aids
  • lung disease
  • mental health problems
  • oral health problems

People suffering from addiction and obesity are more at risk of developing serious health problems than the general population. Plus, struggling with both disorders can lead to a low quality of life.

Low Quality Of Life

Both addiction and obesity, whether comorbid or otherwise, can lower the overall quality of life. A person addicted to drugs or alcohol may make using substances their top priority, neglecting responsibilities at home or work. A person suffering from obesity may not be able to enjoy activities they once loved and avoid public places.

Both substance abuse and obesity can lead to:

  • depression
  • disability
  • feelings of shame or guilt
  • problems fulfilling responsibilities
  • sexual/relationship problems
  • social isolation

When a person suffers from both obesity and substance abuse, it’s important to seek treatment. Treatment can improve a person’s quality of life and help avoid further health risks.

Treating Obesity And Substance Abuse

Behavioral therapies, medications, and support groups may all be used to treat obesity or addiction. While treatment for each person is ly to differ and be individual needs, the following treatments may be used to treat each condition.

Behavioral Therapy

Behavioral therapy is the most common form of addiction treatment and aims to change a person’s thinking and attitudes towards drugs. Common behavioral therapies used to treat addiction include:

  • 12-step facilitation therapy
  • Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)
  • Contingency management/Motivational incentives
  • Dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT)
  • Family therapy
  • The matrix model

While many of these therapies are designed for substance abuse and mental illness, some are relevant for treating obesity as well.

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), while not directly attributed to weight loss, can reduce instances of binge-eating.

Perhaps the most effective therapy for treating obesity involves nutritional counseling programs that target physical activity and eating behaviors.

Medications

For certain addictions, medications may be used to alleviate unpleasant symptoms of withdrawal, lessen physical dependence, reduce drug cravings and help people engage in and complete treatment. Addictions to both opioids and alcohol involve the use of government-approved medications.

Prescription medications used to treat obesity generally work in two ways: to reduce hunger (or feel more full) and to make it harder for the body to absorb more fats from food.

medications used in addiction treatment, prescription drugs are used in combination with other therapies and treatment.

For example, physical exercise, fewer calories and modifying unhealthy behaviors will ly coincide with medication.

Support Groups

Support groups, Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA), are often used to supplement therapy and medications during addiction treatment. These groups can be effective for relapse prevention and peer support, which is essential for overcoming addiction.

addiction, obesity is also served by support groups. Overeaters Anonymous (OA) is a 12-step program for people with shared experiences relating to obesity and overeating. While this group isn’t a treatment for obesity, it can help people remain healthy in recovery and offer support for those struggling to lose weight.

Inpatient Rehab For Comorbid Obesity And Addiction

The best course of action for an obese person suffering from addiction is ly entering inpatient rehab. Inpatient rehab takes place in a residential setting and is effective because it provides around-the-clock medical care and observation, as well as a multidisciplinary approach to treat both substance abuse and obesity.

Co-occurring health conditions, obesity, may complicate treatment, so it’s essential that a person enters a facility capable of addressing both disorders. Many inpatient rehab centers are staffed with a variety of healthcare professionals who can collaborate to provide an integrated approach and the highest level of care.

Contact us today for more information on the relationship between substance abuse and obesity and find help now.

Источник: https://vertavahealth.com/blog/substance-abuse-obesity/

COVID-19 and Your Health

Substance Use, Mental Health Problems on the Rise for Those With Obesity

Important update: Healthcare facilities CDC has updated select ways to operate healthcare systems effectively in response to COVID-19 vaccination. Learn more People with Certain Medical Conditions

People of any age with the following conditions are more ly to get severely ill from COVID-19. Severe illness means that a person with COVID-19 may:

  • Be hospitalized
  • Need intensive care
  • Require a ventilator to help them breathe
  • Die

In addition:

  • Older adults are more ly to get severely ill from COVID-19. More than 81% of COVID-19 deaths occur in people over age 65. The number of deaths among people over age 65 is 80 times higher than the number of deaths among people aged 18-29.
  • The risk of severe COVID-19 increases as the number of underlying medical conditions increases in a person
  • Long-standing systemic health and social inequities have put various groups of people at increased risk of getting sick and dying from COVID-19, including many people from certain racial and ethnic minority groups and people with disabilities.
    • Studies have shown people from racial and ethnic minority groups are also dying from COVID-19 at younger ages. People in minority groups are often younger when they develop chronic medical conditions and may be more ly to have more than one condition.
    • People with disabilities are more ly than those without disabilities to have chronic health conditions, live in congregate settings, and face more barriers to healthcare. Studies have shown that some people with certain disabilities are more ly to get COVID-19 and have worse outcomes.

COVID-19 vaccination (initial doses and boosters) and preventive measures for COVID-19 are important, especially if you are older or have multiple or severe health conditions. Learn more about CDC’s COVID-19 vaccination recommendations, including how medical conditions and other factors inform recommendations. If you have a medical condition, learn more about Actions You Can Take.

  • This list is presented in alphabetical order and not in order of risk.
  • CDC completed an evidence review process for each medical condition on this list to ensure they met criteria for inclusion on this list. CDC conducts ongoing reviews of additional underlying conditions and some of these conditions might have enough evidence to be added to the list.
  • As we are learning more about COVID-19 every day, this list does not include all medical conditions that place a person at higher risk of severe illness from COVID-19. Rare medical conditions, including many conditions that primarily affect children, may not be included below. The list will be updated as the science evolves.
  • A person with a condition that is not listed may still be at greater risk of severe illness from COVID-19 than people of similar age who do not have the condition and should talk with their healthcare provider.

Having cancercan make you more ly to get severely ill from COVID-19. Treatments for many types of cancer can weaken your body’s ability to fight off disease. At this time, available studies, having a history of cancer may increase your risk.

Get more information:

Chronic kidney disease

Having chronic kidney disease of any stage can make you more ly to get severely ill from COVID-19.

Get more information:

Chronic liver disease

Having chronic liver disease, such as alcohol-related liver disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and autoimmune hepatitis, and especially cirrhosis, or scarring of the liver, can make you more ly to get severely ill from COVID-19.

Get more information:

Chronic lung diseases

Having chronic lung diseases can make you more ly to get severely ill from COVID-19. These chronic lung diseases may include:

  • Asthma, if it’s moderate to severe
  • Bronchiectasis (thickening of the lungs airways)
  • Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (chronic lung disease affecting newborns)
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including emphysema and chronic bronchitis
  • Having damaged or scarred lung tissue such as interstitial lung disease (including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis)
  • Cystic fibrosis, with or without lung or other solid organ transplant
  • Pulmonary embolism (blood clot in the lungs)
  • Pulmonary hypertension (high blood pressure in the lungs)

Get more information:

Dementia or other neurological conditions

Having neurological conditions, such as dementia, can make you more ly to get severely ill from COVID-19.

Get more information:

Diabetes (type 1 or type 2)

Having either type 1 or type 2 diabetes can make you more ly to get severely ill from COVID-19.

Get more information:

Down syndrome

Having Down syndrome can make you more ly to get severely ill from COVID-19.

Get more information:

Heart conditions

Having heart conditions such as heart failure, coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathies, and possibly high blood pressure (hypertension) can make you more ly to get severely ill from COVID-19.

Get more information:

  • Heart Disease | CDC
  • COVID-19 | American Heart Associationexternal icon

HIV infection

Having HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) can make you more ly to get severely ill from COVID-19.

Get more information:

Immunocompromised state (weakened immune system)

Having a weakened immune system can make you more ly to get severely ill from COVID-19. Many conditions and treatments can cause a person to be immunocompromised or have a weakened immune system.

Primary immunodeficiency is caused by genetic defects that can be inherited. Prolonged use of corticosteroids or other immune weakening medicines can lead to secondary or acquired immunodeficiency.

People with moderately to severely compromised immune systems should receive an additional dose of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine at least 28 days after the second dose.

Get more information:

Mental health conditions

Having mood disorders, including depression, and schizophrenia spectrum disorders can make you more ly to get severely ill from COVID-19.

Get more information:

Overweight and obesity

Overweight (defined as a body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg/m2 but < 30 kg/m2), obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2 but < 40 kg/m2), or severe obesity (BMI of ≥40 kg/m2), can make you more ly to get severely ill from COVID-19.  The risk of severe COVID-19 illness increases sharply with elevated BMI.

Get more information:

Pregnancy

Pregnant and recently pregnant people (for at least 42 days following end of pregnancy) are more ly to get severely ill from COVID-19 compared with non-pregnant people.

Get more information:

Sickle cell disease or thalassemia

Having hemoglobin blood disorders sickle cell disease (SCD) or thalassemia can make you more ly to get severely ill from COVID-19.

Get more information:

  • Sickle Cell Disease | CDC
  • Thalassemia | CDC

Smoking, current or former

Being a current or former cigarette smoker can make you more ly to get severely ill from COVID-19. If you currently smoke, quit. If you used to smoke, don’t start again. If you’ve never smoked, don’t start.

Get more information:

Solid organ or blood stem cell transplant

Having had a solid organ or blood stem cell transplant, which includes bone marrow transplants, can make you more ly to get severely ill from COVID-19.

Get more information:

Stroke or cerebrovascular disease, which affects blood flow to the brain

Having cerebrovascular disease, such as having a stroke, can make you more ly to get severely ill from COVID-19.

Get more information:

Substance use disorders

Having a substance use disorder (such as alcohol, opioid, or cocaine use disorder) can make you more ly to get severely ill from COVID-19.

Get more information:

Tuberculosis

Having tuberculosis can make you more ly to get severely ill from COVID-19.

Get more information:

  • Basic TB Facts | TB | CDC
  • Public Health Emergencies | TB | CDC

While children have been less affected by COVID-19 compared with adults, children can be infected with the virus that causes COVID-19, and some children develop severe illness. Children with underlying medical conditions are at increased risk for severe illness compared to children without underlying medical conditions.

Current evidence suggests that children with medical complexity, with genetic, neurologic, or metabolic conditions, or with congenital heart disease can be at increased risk for severe illness from COVID-19.

Similar to adults, children with obesity, diabetes, asthma or chronic lung disease, sickle cell disease, or immunosuppression can also be at increased risk for severe illness from COVID-19.

One way to protect the health of children not currently eligible for vaccination is to ensure that everyone who is eligible in a household is fully vaccinated against COVID-19.

Actions You Can Take

In general, the older you are, the more health conditions you have, and the more severe the conditions, the more important it is to take preventive measures against COVID-19 such as vaccination, wearing a mask, social distancing, and practicing hand hygiene. Please contact your state, tribal, local, or territorial health department for more information on COVID-19 vaccination in your area.

It is important for people with medical conditions and their providers to work together and manage those conditions carefully and safely. Get vaccinated for COVID-19 as soon as you can, including taking boosters if and when they are recommended for you. If you have a medical condition, the following are actions you can take your medical conditions and other risk factors:

Seek care when needed

  • Call your healthcare provider if you have any concerns about your medical conditions or if you get sick and think that you may have COVID-19. Discuss steps you can take to manage your health and risks. If you need emergency help, call 911 right away.

  • Do not delay getting care for your medical condition because of COVID-19. Emergency departments, urgent care, clinics, and your health provider or doctor have infection prevention plans to protect you from getting COVID-19 if you need care.

Continue medications and preventive care

  • Continue your medicines and do not change your treatment plan without talking to your healthcare provider.
  • Have at least a 30-day supply of prescription and non-prescription medicines. Talk to a healthcare provider, insurer, or pharmacist about getting an extra supply (i.e.

    , more than 30 days) of prescription medicines, if possible, to reduce your trips to the pharmacy.

  • Follow your current treatment plan (e.g., Asthma Action Plan, dialysis schedule, blood sugar testing, nutrition, and exercise recommendations) to keep your medical condition under control.

  • When possible, keep preventive care and other routine healthcare appointments (e.g., vaccinations and blood pressure checks) with your provider. Check with your provider about safety precautions for office visits and ask about telemedicine or remote healthcare visit options.
  • Learn about stress and coping.

    You may feel increased stress during this pandemic. Fear and anxiety can be overwhelming and cause strong emotions.

Accommodate dietary needs and avoid triggers

Источник: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/people-with-medical-conditions.html

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