People With Mental Illness Feel Physical Symptoms Differently, Here’s Why

The impact of traumatic events on mental health

People With Mental Illness Feel Physical Symptoms Differently, Here’s Why

Around 1 in 3 adults in England report having experienced at least one traumatic event.

Traumatic events can be defined as experiences that put either a person or someone close to them at risk of serious harm or death. These can include:

  • road accidents
  • violence/prolonged abuse
  • natural disasters
  • serious illnesses.

What happens when you experience a traumatic event?

When you experience a traumatic event, your body’s defences take effect and create a stress response, which may make you feel a variety of physical symptoms, behave differently and experience more intense emotions.

This fight or flight response, where your body produces chemicals which prepare your body for an emergency can lead to symptoms such as:

  • raised blood pressure
  • increased heart rate
  • increased sweating
  • reduced stomach activity (loss of appetite).

This is normal, as it’s your body’s evolutionary way of responding to an emergency, making it easier for you to fight or run away. 

Directly after the event people may also experience shock and denial. This can give way over several hours or days to a range of other feelings such as sadness, anger and guilt. Many people feel better and recover gradually.  

However, if these feelings persist, they can lead to more serious mental health problems such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

People experiencing PTSD can feel anxious for years after the trauma, whether or not they were physically injured.

Common symptoms of PTSD include re-experiencing the event in nightmares or flashbacks, avoiding things or places associated with the event, panic attacks, sleep disturbance and poor concentration. Depression, emotional numbing, drug or alcohol misuse and anger are also common.

The most effective therapeutic approach for long-term, severe PTSD appears to be talking treatments with a clinical psychologist, in which the person with PTSD is encouraged to talk through their experiences in detail. This may involve behavioural or cognitive therapeutic approaches. 

Antidepressants may also be prescribed to relieve the depression which people who have survived trauma often experience at the same time.

Find out more about PTSD


Depression is different from feeling down or sad. Someone experiencing depression will experience intense emotions of anxiety, hopelessness, negativity and helplessness, and the feelings stay with them instead of going away.

Talking therapies such as cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and some forms of counselling and psychotherapy work well for depression. Anti-depressants may also be recommended, either on their own or in combination with talking therapies. 

Find out more about depression

Turn to others for support

It can be difficult to talk to close family or friends after a traumatic event. You may not want to cause them any distress or may simply want some space to process it all.

However, it is important to be around other people when you feel able to, as they can help with your recovery and wellbeing. You do not have to talk to them about the experience.

If you don’t have anyone close by to talk to, you can contact one of the organisations below, who will be able to offer further help.

Look after yourself

It is important to look after your health and wellbeing. This can include taking a break or some time away to deal with your experience. You should also try and keep a healthy diet and stay away from drugs and alcohol, which can exacerbate the problem.

Seek professional help

If you are experiencing symptoms that are affecting your day to day life, it is important to get professional help as soon as possible so you can begin to get better. You should consider seeking help if:

  • you don’t have anyone to talk to
  • you don’t feel your feelings have returned to normal after 6 weeks
  • someone close to you has noticed changes and is urging you to seek help
  • your work or studies are affected
  • you find it difficult to carry out daily tasks
  • you are using drugs or alcohol to cope.

The first person to approach is your family doctor or GP. He or she should be able to give advice about treatment, and may refer you to another local professional. There are also a number of voluntary organisations which can offer advice or a listening ear:


The Samaritans offer free emotional support 24 hours a day — in full confidence. Call 116 123 or email [email protected].

Mind Infoline

Mind provides information on a range of mental health topics to support people in their own area from 9.00am to 6.00pm, Monday to Friday. Call 0300 123 3393 or email [email protected].

Rethink Advice and Information Service 

Rethink provide specific solution-based guidance — 0300 5000927 or email: [email protected].

Specialist mental health services

There are a number of specialist services that provide various treatments, including counselling and other talking treatments.

Often these different services are coordinated by a community mental health team (CMHT), which is usually based either at a hospital or a local community mental health centre.

Some teams provide 24-hour services so that you can contact them in a crisis. You should be able to contact your local CMHT through your local social services or social work team.

List of UK trauma services

From the UKPTS: 

Further information and resources


Yes, There Is a Big Difference Between Mental Health and Mental Illness

People With Mental Illness Feel Physical Symptoms Differently, Here’s Why

This misunderstanding can be problematic, leading us to sometimes overlook signs that someone needs help. The CDC points out that many individuals with poor mental health have not been formally diagnosed with a mental illness. Also, many people who do have a diagnosed mental illness “can experience periods of physical, mental, and social well-being.”

Moreover, people with psychiatric conditions can change over time, or their issue can be triggered by events and circumstances, both large and small.

A lack of understanding or a mischaracterization of a mental health problem can discourage people from getting needed treatment. Moreover, blurring the lines between health and disease can cause people to misjudge, dismiss, or even stigmatize those who have a mental illness.

Mental Illness Affects More People Than You Think

It is important that we understand what these two terms mean given the prevalence of mental illness throughout the world. The World Health Organization reports that “mental, neurological, and substance use disorders make up 10% of the global burden of disease and 30% of non-fatal disease burden.”

In addition, the WHO points out that some 800,000 individuals die by suicide each year, about 20% of the world’s children and adolescents have a mental disorder, and depression affects about 264 million people worldwide.

But mental illness doesn’t always indicate ongoing illness. Palmer explained, “For example, if someone has the flu, we wouldn’t say they’re currently physically healthy. Instead, we might say that they’re sick. Similarly, people can have a temporary b mental illness, depression after a divorce.”

The parallels are similar for chronic physical and mental illnesses, he explained. “Some people can have mild cases and function fairly normally. Others can be disabled and struggling in their daily lives. Some people may do well day to day, and others might not.”

Health Literacy Is Incredibly Important Yet Uncommon

Despite the global rates of mental illness, many still don’t understand what mental illness or mental health mean. For example, a 2015 study of working-age adults in the United Kingdom found that about 61% of respondents had a poor understanding of mental health conditions, symptoms, and treatments.

This lack of “health literacy,” the study said, could have a negative impact on the ability of those in need to get help and make informed decisions about managing their conditions. studies this, health experts have led efforts to boost mental health literacy and increase awareness and understanding of mental illness.

“The thing with all mental health disorders is that none of them define the entire person. Although their symptoms might impair their ability to do things others are able to do, they still have areas of strength and competence. Whenever we talk about health versus illness, it’s always important to remember this.”– Dr. Christopher Palmer

Poor mental health literacy also contributes to the problem of mental health stigma. Those who do not understand mental health or mental illness often hold negative and harmful attitudes toward those with psychiatric issues. These attitudes lead to shame, anger, and feelings of worthlessness.

In many cases, social stigma prevents individuals from seeking professional help. “Self-stigma” can affect individuals who have mental health issues but do not fully understand the concepts of mental health and mental illness. They may blame themselves for their conditions. Self-stigma can make conditions worse.

“The thing with all mental health disorders,” Palmer said, “is that none of them define the entire person. Although their symptoms might impair their ability to do things others are able to do, they still have areas of strength and competence. Whenever we talk about health versus illness, it’s always important to remember this.”

Attitudes About Mental Illness and Mental Health

A CBS News poll conducted in the fall of 2019 detailed American attitudes and awareness of mental health issues.

Almost 90% of respondents said there is some stigma and discrimination associated with mental illness in our society.

More than 30% stated that discrimination and stigma associated with mental illness has decreased over the past ten years. However, about 30% said that the situation remains unchanged.

Most of the poll respondents said they had some understanding of conditions such as anxiety, depression, and PTSD. Many said that they know someone who had been diagnosed with a psychiatric condition. The poll found that most Americans considered mental illness a serious issue.


Are you worried about your mental health?

People With Mental Illness Feel Physical Symptoms Differently, Here’s Why

There are other options for help other than support from the NHS.

How can I get private talking therapy?

Private therapy is therapy that isn’t provided by or funded by the NHS. You will have to pay for it yourself or you may have cover through an insurance policy.

The cost of therapy will be different across the country and by therapist. You can ask about charges and agree a price before you start your therapy sessions.

You may get a free first session, or get lower rates for students, job seekers or if you are on a low income.

What should I look for when choosing a therapist?
We always advise that you find a therapist who is a member of a professional body. This means that they will meet certain standards, have a complaints procedure and follow a code of ethics. You can search for private therapists in your local area on the following websites:

How can I get talking therapy through a charity?
You can search online to see if you can find any charities that provide free or low-cost talking therapy. You can try terms such as:

  • ‘free counselling in Camden’ or
  • ‘low cost counselling in Leicestershire’

You can find more information about ‘Talking therapies’ by clicking here.

What are complementary and alternative treatments

Complementary and alternative therapies are health-related therapies that aren’t part of mainstream medical care.

They are thought to increase wellbeing, aid relaxation, and promote good mental health.

You can use complementary and alternative therapies for different mental health needs and symptoms. Examples are:

  • Acupuncture
  • Aromatherapy
  • Herbal Medicine
  • Homeopathy
  • Massage
  • Meditation
  • Spiritual/ energy healing
  • Yoga

You can find out more about, ‘Complementary and alternative treatments’ by clicking here.

What can I do to help myself?

There are things that you can do to help yourself. Everyone is different, so you can find out what works for you.

You can:

You can read more about how physical health and lifestyle changes below:

Can I get self-help online?
There are websites which give information about how to manage your mental health. There are also websites which explain how you can use cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) techniques to improve and manage your mental health. Some people find these useful.

Public Health England – Every Mind Matters:
Get Self Help: CBT self-help:
Ieso – online CBT. Only certain NHS trusts: www.iesohealth.

Mood Gym:;
Mood Juice:;
Live life to the Full: Online courses:

Psychology Tools:

How can I get emotional support?
Talking about your mental health can have big benefits. And people who care about you friends and family are usually happy to listen and support you. But you can also call the following lines to talk about how you are feeling.

They offer emotional support for people in a crisis, available 24 hours a day.

Telephone: 116123
Address: Freepost RSRB-KKBY-CYJK, P.O. Box 9090, Stirling, FK8 2SA

Work with anyone affected by mental illness, including families, friends and carers. They also provide a free text-based support service called Textcare and an online supportive forum community where anyone can share their experiences of mental health.

Telephone: 0300 304 7000 — You might find that because of the COVID pandemic this number isn’t in operation. But you can call 07984 967 708 and leave a message and someone will get back to you.

The Support Forum, Textcare and other services are operating as normal.
Support Forum:


Support Line
They offer confidential emotional support by telephone, email and post. Their opening hours vary so you need to ring them for details.

Telephone: 01708 765200

CALM (Campaign Against Living Miserably)
CALM is leading a movement against suicide. They offer accredited confidential, anonymous and free support, information and signposting to people anywhere in the UK through their helpline and webchat service.

Telephone: 0800 58 58 58
Webchat: through the website

Papyrus UK
Charity that offers emotional support to people under 35 who are suicidal. They can also support people who are concerned about someone under 35 who might be suicidal.

Telephone: 0800 068 41 41
Text: 07786 209697

The Mix
If you’re under 25 and need help but don’t know where to turn, call the Mix for free. They’ll explore your situation with you and find organisations that may be able to help you further. You can also webchat to them 7 days a week.

Telephone: 0808 808 4994

uk/get-support/speak-to-our-team/email-usCrisis support: text THEMIX to 85258 for crisis support (24 hours a day, every day) —


Telephone Counselling:

Webchat: 1 to 1 chat service —

What are support groups?
Support groups are where people with similar issues share experiences with others and get mutual support.

You can search for local mental health support groups below:

There are also online support services:


Depression in Women: 5 Things You Should Know

People With Mental Illness Feel Physical Symptoms Differently, Here’s Why

Being sad is a normal reaction to difficult times in life. But usually, the sadness goes away with a little time.

Depression is different—it is a mood disorder that may cause severe symptoms that can affect how you feel, think, and handle daily activities such as sleeping, eating, or working.

Depression is more common among women than men, ly due to certain biological, hormonal, and social factors that are unique to women.

This brochure contains an overview of five things that everyone should know about depression in women.

Depression is a common but serious mood disorder. Depression symptoms can interfere with your ability to work, sleep, study, eat, and enjoy your life.

Although researchers are still studying the causes of depression, current research suggests that depression is caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors.

Most people with depression need treatment to feel better.

You can’t just ‘snap out’ of depression

Well-meaning friends or family members may try to tell someone with depression to “snap it,” “just be positive,” or “you can be happier if you just try harder.” But depression is not a sign of a person’s weakness or a character flaw. The truth is that most people who experience depression need treatment to get better.

If you are a friend or family member of a woman with depression, you can offer emotional support, understanding, patience, and encouragement. But never dismiss her feelings. Encourage her to talk to her health care provider, and remind her that, with time and treatment, she can feel better.

Most people with depression need treatment to feel better

If you think you may have depression, start by making an appointment to see your health care provider. This could be your primary doctor or a health provider who specializes in diagnosing and treating mental health conditions (for example, a psychologist or psychiatrist).

Certain medications, and some medical conditions, such as viruses or a thyroid disorder, can cause the same symptoms as depression. A health care provider can rule out these possibilities by doing a physical exam, interview, and lab tests.

Your health care provider will examine you and talk to you about treatment options and next steps.

Sadness is only a small part of depression. Some people with depression do not feel sadness at all. A person with depression also may experience many physical symptoms, such as aches or pains, headaches, cramps, or digestive problems. Someone with depression also may have trouble with sleeping, waking up in the morning, and feeling tired.

If you have been experiencing any of the following signs and symptoms for at least two weeks, you may be suffering from depression:

  • Persistent sad, anxious, or “empty” mood
  • Feelings of hopelessness or pessimism
  • Irritability
  • Feelings of guilt, worthlessness, or helplessness
  • Decreased energy or fatigue
  • Difficulty sleeping, early morning awakening, or oversleeping
  • Loss of interest or pleasure in hobbies and activities
  • Moving or talking more slowly
  • Feeling restless or having trouble sitting still
  • Difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions
  • Changes in appetite or weight
  • Thoughts of death or suicide, or suicide attempts
  • Aches or pains, headaches, cramps, or digestive problems without a clear physical cause that do not ease even with treatment

Talk to your health care provider about these symptoms. Be honest, clear, and concise—your provider needs to know how you feel.

Your health care provider may ask when your symptoms started, what time of day they happen, how long they last, how often they occur, if they seem to be getting worse or better, and if they keep you from going out or doing your usual activities. It may help to take the time to make some notes about your symptoms before you visit your provider.

Pregnancy, the postpartum period, perimenopause, and the menstrual cycle are all associated with dramatic physical and hormonal changes. Certain types of depression can occur at different stages of a woman’s life.

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD)

Premenstrual syndrome, or PMS, refers to moodiness and irritability in the weeks before menstruation. It is quite common, and the symptoms are usually mild.

But there is a less common, more severe form of PMS called premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD).

PMDD is a serious condition with disabling symptoms such as irritability, anger, depressed mood, sadness, suicidal thoughts, appetite changes, bloating, breast tenderness, and joint or muscle pain.

Perinatal Depression

Being pregnant isn’t easy. Pregnant women commonly deal with morning sickness, weight gain, and mood swings. Caring for a newborn is challenging, too.

Many new moms experience the “baby blues”—a term used to describe mild mood changes and feelings of worry, unhappiness, and exhaustion that many women sometimes experience in the first two weeks after having a baby.

These feelings usually last a week or two and then go away as a new mom adjusts to having a newborn.

Perinatal depression is a mood disorder that can affect women during pregnancy and after childbirth, and is much more serious than the “baby blues.” The word “perinatal” refers to the time before and after the birth of a child.

Perinatal depression includes depression that begins during pregnancy (called prenatal depression) and depression that begins after the baby is born (called postpartum depression).

Mothers with perinatal depression experience feelings of extreme sadness, anxiety, and fatigue that may make it difficult for them to carry out daily tasks, including caring for themselves, their new child, or others.

If you think you have perinatal depression, you should talk to your health care provider or trained mental health care professional. If you see any signs of depression in a loved one during her pregnancy or after the child is born, encourage her to see a health care provider or visit a clinic.

To learn more about perinatal depression, see the National Institute of Mental Health’s (NIMH) Perinatal Depression brochure.

Perimenopausal Depression

Perimenopause (the transition into menopause) is a normal phase in a woman’s life that can sometimes be challenging.

If you are going through perimenopause, you might be experiencing abnormal periods, problems sleeping, mood swings, and hot flashes. Although these symptoms are common, feeling depressed is not.

If you are struggling with irritability, anxiety, sadness, or loss of enjoyment at the time of the menopause transition, you may be experiencing perimenopausal depression.

Depression affects each woman differently

Not every woman who is depressed experiences every symptom. Some women experience only a few symptoms. Others have many. The severity and frequency of symptoms, and how long they last, will vary depending on the individual and the severity of the illness.

Even the most severe cases of depression can be treated. Depression is commonly treated with medication, psychotherapy (also called “talk therapy”), or a combination of the two.

Antidepressants are medications commonly used to treat depression. People respond differently to antidepressants, and you may need to try different medicines to find the one that works best.

Researchers also are studying and developing other medications for depression, such as brexanolone for postpartum depression, and esketamine.

You can learn about recent developments on these and other medications at NIMH's Science News webpage under the topic “Treatments.”

There are many different types of psychotherapy, such as cognitive behavioral therapy or interpersonal therapy. The particular approach a therapist uses depends on the condition being treated and the training and experience of the therapist. Therapists also may combine and adapt elements of different approaches.

Depression affects each individual differently. There is no “one-size-fits-all” for treatment. It may take some trial and error to find the treatment that works best.

You can learn more about the different types of depression treatment, including psychotherapy, medication, and brain stimulation therapies, on the NIMH’s webpage about depression.

Visit the Food and Drug Administration website for the latest information on warnings, patient medication guides, and newly approved medications.

Therapists and patients work together, and finding a good match is important. The following tips can help you find the right therapist.

Ask about their areas of expertise. Therapists have different professional backgrounds and specialties. You want to find a therapist who has experience working with your specific condition.

Find out what kinds of treatments they use. Ask if those treatments are effective for dealing with your particular mental health problem or issue.

Find out how you’ll evaluate progress. Determine how long treatment is expected to last, and when you should expect to gain relief from symptoms and improve your quality of life.

Don’t be afraid to keep looking. Rapport and trust are essential. Discussions in therapy are deeply personal, and it’s important that you feel comfortable with the therapist you pick.

Researchers continue to study depression to improve the way this medical condition is diagnosed and treated. For example, NIMH researchers are currently working to understand how and why changes in reproductive hormones trigger mood disorders, including postpartum depression, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, and perimenopausal depression.

NIMH scientists are conducting a large number of research studies with patients and healthy volunteers to better understand why some women are at higher risk than others, and how they can translate these findings into new treatments or new uses of existing treatments.

You can play a role in research by joining a clinical trial

Clinical trials are research studies that look at new ways to prevent, detect, or treat diseases and conditions. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe.

Although individuals may benefit from being part of a clinical trial, participants should be aware that the primary purpose of a clinical trial is to gain new scientific knowledge so that others may be better helped in the future.

In addition to volunteer research opportunities for the patient groups listed above, research opportunities for healthy volunteers are also available. Healthy volunteers play a critical role in our studies.

For more information about clinical research and how to find clinical trials being conducted around the country, visit NIMH's clinical trials webpage.

The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) provides the Behavioral Health Treatment Services Locator, an online resource for locating mental health treatment facilities and programs in your state. For additional resources, visit our Help for Mental Illnesses webpage.

If you are in immediate distress or are thinking about hurting yourself, call the National Suicide Prevention Hotline toll-free at 1-800-273-TALK (8255). You also can text the Crisis Text Line (HELLO to 741741) or use the Lifeline Chat on the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline website.

This publication is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission from NIMH. Citation of NIMH as a source is appreciated. To learn more about using NIMH publications, please refer to these guidelines.

MedlinePlus (National Library of Medicine) (En español) (En español)

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health NIH Publication No. 20-MH-4779

Revised 2020


About Mental Health

People With Mental Illness Feel Physical Symptoms Differently, Here’s Why

Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel, and act. It also helps determine how we handle stress, relate to others, and make healthy choices.1 Mental health is important at every stage of life, from childhood and adolescence through adulthood.

Although the terms are often used interchangeably, poor mental health and mental illness are not the same. A person can experience poor mental health and not be diagnosed with a mental illness. wise, a person diagnosed with a mental illness can experience periods of physical, mental, and social well-being.

Why is mental health important for overall health?

Mental and physical health are equally important components of overall health.  For example, depression increases the risk for many types of physical health problems, particularly long-lasting conditions diabetes, heart disease, and stroke. Similarly, the presence of chronic conditions can increase the risk for mental illness.2

Can your mental health change over time?

Yes, it’s important to remember that a person’s mental health can change over time, depending on many factors.  When the demands placed on a person exceed their resources and coping abilities, their mental health could be impacted. For example, if someone is working long hours, caring for a relative, or experiencing economic hardship, they may experience poor mental health.

How common are mental illnesses?

Mental illnesses are among the most common health conditions in the United States.

  • More than 50% will be diagnosed with a mental illness or disorder at some point in their lifetime.3
  • 1 in 5 Americans will experience a mental illness in a given year.4
  • 1 in 5 children, either currently or at some point during their life, have had a seriously debilitating mental illness.5
  • 1 in 25 Americans lives with a serious mental illness, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depression.6

What causes mental illness?

There is no single cause for mental illness. A number of factors can contribute to risk for mental illness, such as

  • Early adverse life experiences, such as trauma or a history of abuse (for example, child abuse, sexual assault, witnessing violence, etc.)
  • Experiences related to other ongoing (chronic) medical conditions, such as cancer or diabetes
  • Biological factors or chemical imbalances in the brain
  • Use of alcohol or drugs
  • Having feelings of loneliness or isolation

People can experience different types of mental illnesses or disorders, and they can often occur at the same time. Mental illnesses can occur over a short period of time or be episodic. This means that the mental illness comes and goes with discrete beginnings and ends. Mental illness can also be ongoing or long-lasting.

There are more than 200 types of mental illness. Some of the main types of mental illness and disorders are listed hereexternal icon.

  1. Strengthening Mental Health Promotionexternal icon. Fact sheet no. 220. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
  2. Chronic Illness & Mental Healthexternal icon. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Mental Health. 2015.
  3. Kessler RC, Angermeyer M, Anthony JC, et al. Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of mental disorders in the World Health Organization’s World Mental Health Survey Initiative. World Psychiatry. 2007;6(3):168-176.
  4. Key substance use and mental health indicators in the United States: Results from the 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Rockville, MD: Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2016.
  5. Merikangas KR, He J, Burstein M, et al. Lifetime Prevalence of Mental Disorders in US Adolescents: Results from the National Comorbidity Study-Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 2010;49(10):980-989. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2010.05.017.
  6. Key substance use and mental health indicators in the United States: Results from the 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Rockville, MD: Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2016.
  7. Health & Education Statisticsexternal icon. Bethesda, MD: National Institute of Mental Health. National Institutes of Health. 2016.
  8. Kessler RC, Chiu WT, Demler O, Walters EE. Prevalence, Severity, and Comorbidity of Twelve-month DSM-IV Disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Archives of general psychiatry. 2005;62(6):617-627. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.62.6.617.Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. (2016). Key substance use and mental health indicators in the United States: Results from the 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Rockville, MD.
  9. Rui P, Hing E, Okeyode T. National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 2014 State and National Summary Tables.pdf icon Atlanta, GA: National Center for Health Statistics. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2014.
  10. Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS). Atlanta, GA: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2015.
  11. Insel, T.R. Assessing the Economic Costs of Serious Mental Illness. Am J Psychiatry. 2008 Jun;165(6):663-5. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.08030366.
  12. HCUP Facts and Figures: Statistics on Hospital-based Care in the United States, 2009. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. 2009.
  13. Reeves, WC et al. CDC Report: Mental Illness Surveillance Among Adults in the United States. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2011;60(03);1-32.
  14. Parks, J., et al. Morbidity and Mortality in People with Serious Mental Illness. Alexandria, VA: National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors Council. 2006.
  15. Strengthening Mental Health Promotionexternal icon. Fact sheet no. 220. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.


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