Overview of the Electra Complex in Psychology

ELECTRA COMPLEX (A complete guide)

Overview of the Electra Complex in Psychology

“Electra complex” is a psychoanalytic term used to describe the female version of the Oedipus complex, in which a young girl becomes sexually attached unconsciously to her father and feels a rivalry with her mother, thus becomes progressively antagonistic toward her mother.

As per Sigmund Freud, during the female psychosexual turn of events, a little youngster is at first attached to her mother.

At the point when she realizes that she doesn’t have a penis, she develops penis envy, becomes attached to her father, and starts to loathe her mother who she faults for her “castration.”

Frued believed that this would occur during the phallic stage of his psychosexual stages.

These stages, he suggested, represented different fixations of the libido and as the individual grows, the body part that each stage is related to could become a place of either frustrating or pleasurable erogenous zones. 

Eventually, Freud theorized that the young girl starts to relate to and imitate her mother’s behaviors dread of losing her affection.

The child ultimately emulates her mother to the extent of strongly identifying with her and this resolves the electra complex. 

History of Electra complex:

While the term Electra complex is as often as possible related to Sigmund Freud, it was Carl Jung who coined the term in 1913.

Freud developed the Oedipus complex and  theorized the fundamental concept of the Electra complex, though he did not term it.

The term itself is derived from the Greek myth of Electra and her brother Orestes, who plotted to kill their mother in revenge of their father’s murder. 

Freud and Jung were initially dear companions and partners, yet Jung progressively became disappointed with specific parts of Freud’s speculations.

He felt that Freud underscored the job sexuality played in inspiring human conduct.

In the long run, Jung left his psychoanalytic affiliations and a level of hostility was developed between the two men. 

How does the Electra complex begin? 

One viewpoint Sigmund Freud gave a lot of his work is a psychosexual perspective and how sexuality is seen in the beginning stages of life.

It was one of the extraordinary upheavals of Freudian theory.

Up to that point, therapists had not imagined that youngsters could have sexuality. 

How we understand our sexuality and sexual driving forces during youth often plays a role in how we develop and how adjusted our psychosexual identity is.

Be that as it may, Carl Jung contrasted on these issues. Something that Jung saw is that there was something missing in Freud’s hypothesis.

The Oedipus complex concentrated distinctly on men and just on the exceptional physical and passionate security among children and mothers in the initial 6 years of life. 

In this manner, he built up his hypothesis of the Electra complex in 1912 to fill in that hole.

His thought was to carry that viewpoint to the field of female turn of events. 

The hypothesis clarified:

Ø  As indicated by Freud, all individuals experience various phases of psychosexual improvement as kids.

The most significant stage is the “phallic stage” between the ages of 3 and 6. 

Ø  As indicated by Freud, the phallic stage is when boys and girls become focused on the penis.

Freud contended that young girls focus on their absence of a penis and, in its nonappearance, their clitoris. 

Ø  In a young girl’s psychosexual turn of events, Freud proposed, she’s initially attached to her mother until she understands she does not have a penis.

This makes her detest her mother for castrating her — a circumstance Freud alluded to as “penis envy.” Because of this, she builds up a connection with her father. 

Ø  Afterward, the girl recognizes all the more unequivocally with her mother and emulates her behavior fear of losing her mother’s affection.

Ø  Freud found this was a significant stage in a child’s life, as it drives her to begin to acknowledge and comprehend her sexuality. 

Ø  Freud recommended that the lady Oedipus demeanor was more genuinely extreme than the Oedipus complex, so it was curbed all the more brutally by the child.

This, he thought, prompted girls to be less fearless and progressively subservient. 

Ø  Carl Jung developed this hypothesis by naming it the “Electra complex.”

However, this mark was dismissed by Freud, who said it was an endeavor to compare the Oedipus complex between the genders. 

Ø  Since Freud accepted there were critical contrasts between the Oedipus complex and the female version of the Oedipus complex, he did not believe they ought to be conflated. 

Case of how the Electra complex functions 

Ø  At first, the young girl is attached to her mother. 

Ø  At that point, she understands she doesn’t have a penis. She encounters “penis envy” and presents hostility towards her mother for her castration. 

Ø  Since she needs to explicitly have a parent and she cannot have her mother due to her anger about not having a penis, she attempts to become more attached to her father.

At this stage, she has unconscious, sexual attraction toward her father. 

Ø  In the end, she understands she would not to lose her mother’s affection, so she becomes attached to her mother once more, copying her mother’s behaviors in an effort to relate better to her.

Ø  In adolescence, the child will begin to be attracted to males who are not related to her, as indicated by Freud. 

Ø  A few adults, Jung noted, could relapse to the phallic stage or never develop the phallic stage, leaving them explicitly connected to their parent. 

Attributes of the Electra complex 

The Electra complex includes various stages. Next, we’ll clarify quickly what each stage is and how it shows. 

First stage: being pulled in to the mother 

Carl Jung was sure that the bond between a young girl and her mother is substantially more extraordinary than between a boy and his mother in the initial three years of life.

In this stage, the young girl relates to her mother and begins to incorporate some of the maternal qualities of her mother into her own character and even disguise her profound quality in the “super self-image”. 

Second stage: being pulled in to the father 

At three or four years of age, the young girl ceases having such an appreciation for her mother and starts feeling a fascination towards her father.

The second stage begins when young girls find that they feel an attraction to their fathers and they realize they do not have a penis. So they feel a craving to acquire what this sexual organ symbolizes.

Moreover, psychoanalysts attest that this feeling towards the father creates a contention and separation of the child from the mother. 

Girls may get envious and show practices possessive affection towards the father, as well as become hostile towards her mother

Third stage: resolution

Typically, after a child turns six, the electra complex is resolved through the realization that she never had a penis and thus, was not castrated by her mother.

Accepting her body and resuming an attachment with her mother is the key to moving through the electra complex.

In the event that the electra complex is unresolved, Freud believed the individual would develop a fixation that would last the rest of their life.

This fixation could lead to anxiety, neurosis, and/or maladaptive behaviors in adulthood.

Is the Electra complex recognized in the psychology field today? 

The Electra complex is not generally acknowledged in psychology these days.

wise with a significant number of Freud’s hypotheses, the female Oedipus complex and the idea of “penis envy” is additionally broadly reprimanded. 

Next to no information suggests the possibility that the Electra complex is validated. It is not included in the most recent version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). 

As a 2015 paper brings up, Freud’s thoughts regarding psychosexual improvement have been censured as obsolete because they depend on exceptionally old views with no evidence. 

The idea of “penis envy” has, specifically, been condemned as chauvinistic. The Oedipus and Electra complexes wise suggest that a child needs two parents — a mother and a father — to grow appropriately, which has been censured as hetero-normative. 

All things considered, it’s plausible for young children to encounter sexual fascination toward their fathers.

It’s only not as general as Freud and Jung trusted it to be, as indicated by numerous individuals in the field. 

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FAQ’s Questions:

Working through the Electra complex is a process that typically occurs naturally through the child’s maturity development.

It is the base id (a part of character present from birth) that requests the child to be attracted to her father and contend with her mother.

Through growth, the child will come to terms with the relationships she has with her parents.

The Electra complex is not, at this point, a broadly acknowledged hypothesis.

Most analysts don’t trust it is valid. It’s progressively a hypothesis that has become the subject of jokes.

In the case of concern about a child’s psychological or sexual development, connect with a mental health professional.

Still, it is not necessarily a bad thing for a child to develop an electra complex, as it is typical for a young boy to develop an oedipus complex.

The complex is named for Electra, whose mother killed her father as per Greek folklore.

Sigmund Freud could not help contradicting Jung that there was such an unbelievable marvel as the Electra complex and underlined that it was young men and young men alone who experienced love for one parent and contempt for the other.

The psychosexual stages are five periods in an individual’s development that relate to fixations of the libido.

Freud hypothesized them to be 1) oral, 2) back passage, 3) phallic, 4) latency, and 5) genital.

The electra complex was theorized to occur during the phallic stage.

 For more information about the electra complex, check out this book:

Focus On: 90 Most Popular Psychoanalytic Terminologies: Narcissistic personality Disorder, Pansexuality, Id, ego and Super-ego, Oedipus Complex, Libido, … Electra Complex, Defence Mechanisms, etc.

This book gives an overview of Freud’s most popular theories.

Within it, one can read more regarding the Oedipus and Electra complexes, along with other aspects of Freud’s psychosexual theories.

Freud’s Theory for Beginners: About Dreams, Psychosexual Stages, Id, Ego and Superego

This book explores Freud’s theories, specifically focusing on his dream theory, his psychosexual stages, the id, ego, and superego, psychodynamics, Jung’s take on psychoanalysis, and more!

The author strived to write everything in simple terms so everyone can begin to understand the beginnings of psychanalysis.

References:

1.     https://www.verywellmind.com/

2.     https://www.healthline.com/3.https://www.simplypsychology.org/

Let us know if you d the post. That’s the only way we can improve.

Источник: https://optimistminds.com/electra-complex/

What is the Difference Between Oedipus Complex and Electra Complex

Overview of the Electra Complex in Psychology

The main difference between Oedipus complex and Electra complex is that Oedipus complex is relevant to both girls and boys while Electra complex is specifically relevant to girls.

Sigmund Freud developed the concept of Oedipus Complex to describe a child’s sexual desire for the parent of the opposite sex and a sense of rivalry with the parent of the same sex. Later, Carl Jung introduced Electra complex, which is the female equivalent of Oedipus complex. However, we often use Oedipus complex as a general term to describe both Oedipus and Electra complexes.

Key Areas Covered

1. What is Oedipus Complex 
     – Definition, Characteristics, Development
2. What is Electra Complex
     – Definition, Characteristics, Development
3. What is the Difference Between Oedipus Complex and Electra Complex
     – Comparison of Key Differences

Key Terms

Carl Jung, Electra Complex, Oedipus Complex, Sigmund Freud

What is Oedipus Complex

Oedipus complex is a term Sigmund Freud used in his psychoanalytic theory of sexual drive. This term refers to a child’s sexual desire for the parent of the opposite sex and a sense of rivalry with the parent of the same sex.

According to Freud, this complex occurs during the phallic stage of development (around 3 – 6 years) in children. Although these feelings and desires are unconscious and involuntary, they have a major impact on a child’s development.

Freud first talked about this concept in his book The Interpretation of Dreams (1899), but it was in the 1910s that this term actually began to be used. This term is named after the titular protagonist in Sophocles’ Oedipus Rex, who killed his father, married his mother unknowingly.

Moreover, it is also important to note that people use Oedipus complex as a general term to describe both Oedipus and Electra complexes.

However, Oedipus complex particularly refers to a boy’s erotic desire for his mother and resentment, envy and rivalry towards his mother.

Moreover, Freud describes how the boy wishes to possess his mother and take the position of his father, who he views as a rival for the mother’s affections.

These hostile feelings towards the father gradually lead to castration anxiety, which the boy’s irrational fear that the father will castrate him as punishment. Then the boy gradually starts to identify with the father as a way to cope with this castration anxiety.

He starts to adopt the values, attitudes and characteristics of his father, for example, gender roles and masculine personality. Through this process, the father becomes a role model instead of a rival, and boys acquire their superego and the male sex role.

Moreover, boys’ desire for mother is substituted with the desire for other women.

What is Electra Complex

Electra complex is the female equivalent of the Oedipus complex. Carl Jung introduced this concept in his Theory of Psychoanalysis in 1913; however, Freud did not accept this theory as he believed that Oedipus complex applies to both boys and girls although they experience it differently.

What happens in the Electra complex is that girls aged 3 to 6 years become unconsciously attracted to their father and develop hostile feelings towards mothers, seeing them as their rivals.

Penis envy is an element in female psychosexual development, where the daughter blames the mother for depriving her of a penis.

Eventually, this resentment leads the girl to identify with and emulate the mother, incorporating many of the mother’s characteristics into her ego.

Definition

Oedipus Complex is a Freudian concept that describes a child’s sexual desire for the parent of the opposite sex and a sense of rivalry with the parent of the same sex while Electra complex is a non-Freudian concept that describes a girls’ adoration and attraction to their fathers and resentment, hostility and rivalry towards their mothers.

Introduction

Sigmund Freud introduced Oedipus complex in 1899; Carl Jung introduced Electra complex in 1913 by Carl Jung as a female counterpart of Oedipus complex.  

Sex

Moreover, Oedipus complex is traditionally used to describe a boy’s attraction towards the mother and sense of rivalry with father. In contrast, Electra complex describes a girl’s attraction towards the father and sense of rivalry with mother.

Associated Anxiety

In Oedipus complex, boys experience castration anxiety while in Electra complex, girls experience penis envy.

Conclusion

Oedipus Complex is a Freudian concept that describes a child’s sexual desire for the parent of the opposite sex and a sense of rivalry with the parent of the same sex.

In contrast, Electra complex is a non-Freudian concept that describes a girls’ adoration and attraction to their fathers and resentment, hostility and rivalry towards their mothers.

Thus, this is the main difference between Oedipus complex and Electra complex.

Reference:

1. Cherry, Kendra. “What Is the Electra Complex in Psychoanalytic Theory?” Verywell Mind, 12 Aug. 2019, Available here.
2. McLeod, Saul. “Oedipal Complex.” Simple Psychology, Available here.

Image Courtesy:

1. “young, girl, daughter, kid, child, dad, father, grandfather, family, holding hands” (CC0) via Pxfuel
2. “woman kissing boy, woman, black, bubble, jacket, carrying, boy, kissing, lips, daytime” (CC0) via Pxfuel

Источник: https://pediaa.com/what-is-the-difference-between-oedipus-complex-and-electra-complex/

Oedipal Complex

Overview of the Electra Complex in Psychology

By Saul McLeod, published 2018

The Oedipal complex is a term used by Sigmund Freud in his theory of psychosexual stages of development, and is the generic term for both Oedipus and Electra complexes.

The Oedipal complex occurs during the Phallic stage of development (ages 3-6) in which the source of libido (life force) is concentrated in the erogenous zones of the child's body (Freud, 1905).

During this stage, children experience an unconscious feeling of desire for their opposite-sex parent and jealousy and envy toward their same-sex parent.

The Oedipus complex is successfully resolved when the boy begins toidentify with his father as an indirect way to have the mother. Failure to resolve the Oedipus complex may

The Oedipus Complex

The Oedipus complex is a theory of Sigmund Freud, and occurs during the Phallic stage of psychosexual development.

It involves a boy, aged between 3 and 6, becoming unconsciously sexually attached to his mother, and hostile towards his father (who he views as a rival).

In the young boy, the Oedipus complex or more correctly, conflict, arises because the boy develops unconscious sexual (pleasurable) desires for his mother.

Envy and Jealous are aimed at the father, the object of the mother's affection and attention. These feelings for the mother and rivalry toward the father lead to fantasies of getting rid of his father and taking his place with the mother.

The hostile feelings towards the father lead to castration anxiety, an irrational fear that the father will castrate (remove his penis) him as punishment.

To cope with this anxiety, the son identifies with the father. This means the son adopts / internalizes the attitudes, characteristics and values that his father holds (e.g. personality, gender role, masculine dad-type behaviors etc.).

The father becomes a role model rather than a rival. Through this identification with the aggressor, boys acquire their superego and the male sex role.The boy substitutes his desire for his mother with the desire for other women.

Freud (1909) offered the Little Hans case study as evidence of the Oedipus complex.

The Electra Complex

The Electra complex is a term used to describe the female version of the Oedipus complex. It involves a girl, aged between 3 and 6, becoming unconsciously sexually attached to her father and increasingly hostile toward her mother.

The Electra complex,while often attributed to Freud, was actually proposed by Freud’s protégé, Carl Jung (Jung & Kerenyi,1963).

For girls, the Electra complex begins with the belief that she’s already been castrated. She blames her mother for this and experiences penis envy. For girls to develop their superego and female sex role, they need to identify with the mother.

But the girl’s motivation for giving up her father as a love-object in order to move back to her mother is much less obvious than the boy’s for identifying with his father.

As a consequence, girls’ identification with their mothers is less complete than boys’ with their fathers. In turn, this makes the female superego weaker and their identity as separate, independent persons is less well developed.

Critical Evaluation

Freud believed that the Oedipus complex was ‘the central phenomenon of the sexual period of early childhood’. But there’s little evidence to support his claim regarding sex differences in morality (as a result of the female’s weaker superego). For example, as measured by children’s ability to resist temptation, girls, if anything, are stronger than boys (Hoffman, 1975).

According to Horney (1924) and Thompson (1943), rather than girls wanting a penis, what they really envy is males’ superior social status.

Freud assumed that the Oedipus complex is a universal phenomenon, but Malinowski’s (1929) study of the Trobriand Islanders showed that where the father is the mother’s lover but not the son’s disciplinarian (i.

e. an avuncular society), the father–son relationship was very good.

It seems that Freud over-emphasized the role of sexual jealousy. But this is still only one study, and more societies, both Western and avuncular, need to be examined.

Also, other psychodynamic theorists, such as Erikson (1950) believed that Freud exaggerated the influence of instincts, particularly the sexual instinct, in his account of personality development. Erikson tried to correct this by describing stages of psychosocial development, reflecting the influence of social, cultural and historical factors, but without denying the role of biology.

Another major criticism of Freud’s Oedipal theory is that it was based almost entirely on the case of Little Hans (1909). In fact, Freud’s Oedipal theory had already been proposed in 1905, and Little Hans was simply presented as a ‘little Oedipus’.

Given that this wasthe only child patient that Freud reported on, and that any theory of development must involve the study of children, Little Hans is a crucially important case study. But it was extremely biased, with Hans’s father (a supporter of Freud’s theories) doing most of the psychoanalysis, and Freud simply seeing Hans as confirming his Oedipal theory.

Quite apart from criticism of the reliability and objectivity of the case study method in general, other psychodynamic theorists have offered alternative interpretations of Hans’s horse phobia. These include Bowlby’s (1973) re-interpretation in terms of attachment theory.

However, Bee (2000) believes that attachment research provides considerable support for the basic psychoanalytic hypothesis that the quality of the child’s earliest relationships affects the whole course of later development. Both Bowlby (1973) and Erikson (1963) see early relationships as prototypes of later relationships. Belief in the impact of early experience is a lasting legacy of Freud’s developmental theory.

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APA Style References

Bjorklund, B. R., & Bee, H. L. (2000). The journey of adulthood (4th ed.). Florida: Pearson.

Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss: Separation: Anxiety and anger (Vol. 2). New York: Basic Books.

Erikson, E. H. (1950). Childhood and society. New York: Norton.

Erikson, E. H. (Ed.). (1963). Youth: Change and challenge. New York: Basic books.

Freud, S. (1905). Three essays on the theory of sexuality. Se, 7.

Freud, S. (1909). Analysis of a phobia of a five year old boy. In The Pelican Freud Library (1977), Vol 8, Case Histories 1, pages 169-306

Hoffman, M. L. (1975). Sex differences in moral internalization and values. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32(4), 720.

Horney, K., & Horney. (1924). On the genesis of the castration complex in women (pp. 37-54).

Jung, C., & Kerenyi, C. (1963). Science of mythology. In R. F. C. Hull (Ed. & Trans.), Essays on the myth ofthe divine child and the mysteries of Eleusis. New York: Harper & Row.

Malinowski, B. (1929). An ethnographic account of courtship, marriage, and family life among the natives of the Trobriand Islands, British New Guinea. New York: Eugenics Pub. Co.. The Sexual Life of Savages in North-Western Melanesia.

Thompson, C. (1943). “Penis envy” in women. Psychiatry, 6(2), 123-125.

How to reference this article:

McLeod, S. A. (2018, September 03). Oedipal complex. Simply Psychology. www.simplypsychology.org/oedipal-complex.html

 Download this article as a PDF

Источник: https://www.simplypsychology.org/oedipal-complex.html

The Electra Complex: What Is It and What Does It Do?

Overview of the Electra Complex in Psychology

It was Carl Gustav Jung who explained one of the most well-know theories about girls’ psychosexual development: the Electra complex. The Swiss psychologist was inspired by the history and symbolism of the Greek myth of Electra.

Electra was the daughter of the king of Mycenae. She plotted a sophisticated plan along with her brother Orestes to avenge the death of their father. It involved killing her own mother and her mother’s lover.

It’s interesting to see the etymological meaning of the name. Electra means both “amber” and “spark” due to the static electricity that comes from amber, a fossil resin.

There were many modern authors who saw something complex and striking in the character and name. For example she inspired well-known novels such as Mourning Becomes Electra, by Eugene O’Neill. This book discussed the obscurities and psychological recesses inside a family of the 30’s.

“The pendulum of the mind alternates between meaning and nonsense, not between good and evil.”

– Carl Gustav Jung-

Jung’s theory

Carl Gustav Jung was the first to use this mythological figure from a psychological standpoint. In 1912, the concept of Electra would serve to illustrate girls’ early fixation on their parents. 

The Electra complex is also the counterpart to the Oedipus complex, developed by Sigmund Freud. The Oedipus complex comes from the Oedipus myth of Sophocles, from classical Greek mythology. Here, the famous father of psychoanalysis held the idea that every boy goes through a stage of being attracted to his mother, perceiving his father as a rival.

Psychologists see this type of attraction (which may sound unusual to the average person) as a normal stage of psychological development for all children between 3 and 6 years old. After this age, this fixation or preference dissolves by itself naturally. Now let’s look at it in more detail…

How does the Electra complex start?

To understand this complex and how it forms, we have to get in the right context. We’re coming from a psychoanalysis approach.

 One aspect Sigmund Freud devoted much of his work to was psychosexual development and how sexuality is managed in the early stages of life. It was one of the great revolutions of Freudian thought.

Until then, psychologists had not thought that children could have sexuality.

“To be a father, you have to stop being a son.”

-Carl Gustav Jung-

The way we develop our sexuality and respond to sexual impulses during early childhood will determine how fully we mature and how balanced and “healthy” our psycho-affective development is. However, maintaining certain fixations can lead to mental disorders. Freud himself labeled these neuroses and problems as “aberrant”.

But Carl Gustav Jung differed on these issues. Something that Jung perceived, in the first place, is that there was a serious “theoretical vacuum” in Freud’s theory. The Oedipus complex focused only on men, and only on the intense physical and emotional bond between sons and mothers in the first 6 years of life.

Therefore, he developed his theory of the Electra complex in 1912 to fill in that gap. His idea was to bring that perspective to the field of female development.

Characteristics of the Electra complex

The Electra complex involves different phases. Next we’ll explain very briefly what each phase is and how it manifests.

First stage: being attracted to the mother

Carl Jung was certain that the emotional bond between a girl and her mother is much more intense than between a boy and his mother in the first 3 years of life.

This initial attachment will later mark “the return”.

We’re talking about the need for the girl to identify with her mother to incorporate some of the maternal characteristics into her personality and even internalize her morality in the “super ego”.

Second stage: being attracted to the father

At 3 or 4 years old, the girl stops having such attraction to her mother and begins showing attraction towards her dad.

  • The Electra complex starts, supposedly, when girls discover that they do not have a penis. So they now feel a desire to obtain what this sexual organ symbolizes. In addition, psychoanalysts affirm that this approach toward the paternal figure creates a certain rivalry and distance with respect to the mother.
  • Girls may get jealous and display behaviors possessive affection towards the father. Or she will display hostility if she doesn’t get what she wants from the father figure.

The natural resolution of the Electra complex

When the girl reaches 6 or 7 years old, she will again feel the need for closeness and identification with the mother. Thus, behaviors of imitation and curiosity towards the feminine world begin as she settles into her gender role.

Jung emphasized in his theory that this whole phase is part of a girl’s normal development. It makes up the basis of her emotional, social, and psychological behavior, which will continue to mature in later years. In the end, all friction should dissipate and girls shouldn’t see their mothers as enemies or rivals.

What is true about the Electra complex theory?

Many girls prefer their father at a certain time in their lives. However, we should note that modern psychology sees these Oedipal and Electra theories as very antiquated. They’re seen as out-of-date, the classical psychosexual stages marked by an oral, anal, and phallic phase.

In fact, there are well-known psychoanalysts who do not share this vision and theory. For example, German psychoanalyst Karen Horney says that the idea that girls envy their fathers’ penis is offensive to women.

Now, if a girl displays behaviors as common as looking for dad’s affection more than mom’s, choosing to spend most of her time with him or saying she wants to “marry dad”, there is nothing bad or pathological about it.

After all, her father is her closest male role model. The fantasies, games, and behaviors will disappear naturally as socialization with peers becomes more important.

Actually, Carl Gustav Jung himself didn’t even give a completely biological or universal value to these behaviors. It is just a behavior that happens in some girls and usually resolves after a short time.

Bibliography:

-Freud, S. “Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality” Basic Books: Nueva York-Jayme, María y Victoria Sau (1996) Psicología diferencial del sexo y el género: fundamentos, pp. 109, 110. Icaria Editorial-Jung, C. G.: Obras completas, Madrid: Editorial Trotta, 1999/2016.

-Scott, J. (2005). Electra después de Freud: El mito y la cultura. Estudios de Cornell en la historia de la psiquiatría. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Источник: https://exploringyourmind.com/electra-complex-what-is-it/

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