Important Facts About Nicotine

Nicotine Is Why Tobacco Products Are Addictive

Important Facts About Nicotine

Nicotine. Tobacco products are addictive because they contain nicotine. Nicotine keeps people using tobacco products, even when they want to stop. 

What Is Nicotine?

Nicotine is a highly addictive chemical compound present in a tobacco plant. All tobacco products contain nicotine, including cigarettes, non-combusted cigarettes (commonly referred to as “heat-not-burn tobacco products” or “heated tobacco products”), cigars, smokeless tobacco (such as dip, snuff, snus, and chewing tobacco), hookah tobacco, and most e-cigarettes.

Using any tobacco product can lead to nicotine addiction. This is because nicotine can change the way the brain works, causing cravings for more of it. 

Some tobacco products, cigarettes, are designed to deliver nicotine to the brain within seconds,1 making it easier to become dependent on nicotine and more difficult to quit. While nicotine naturally occurs in the tobacco plant itself, some tobacco products contain additives that may make it easier for your body to absorb more nicotine.2 

What Makes Tobacco Use Harmful? 

Nicotine is what keeps people using tobacco products. However, it’s the thousands of chemicals contained in tobacco and tobacco smoke that make tobacco use so deadly. Some of these chemicals, known to cause lung damage, are also found in some e-cigarette aerosols. 

This toxic mix of chemicals—not nicotine—cause the serious health effects among those who use tobacco products, including fatal lung diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cancer.3 

Tobacco products containing nicotine pose different levels of health risk to adult users. Combustible products, or products that burn tobacco, are the most harmful. An example of a combustible product is cigarettes, which deliver more than 7,000 chemicals1 along with nicotine that makes it hard to quit.

FDA-approved nicotine replacement therapies (NRTs), such as gums and lozenges, are the least harmful. Noncombustible products, such as heat-not-burn tobacco products, smokeless tobacco, and e-cigarettes, fall somewhere in between combustible products and NRTs. 

If you’re an adult and don’t use tobacco products, we strongly encourage you to stay tobacco-free. If you’re an adult who currently uses tobacco products, there are resources to help you quit. 

To learn about the additional harms tobacco can have on young people and their developing brains, read “Why Can’t My Teen Quit Smoking or Vaping?” 

What Are Nicotine Replacement Therapies (NRTs) and How Can They Help? 

FDA-approved nicotine replacement therapies, also known as NRTs, are products that contain nicotine and are designed to help adults quit smoking by delivering small amounts of nicotine to the brain without the toxic chemicals found in cigarette smoke. 

NRTs such as nicotine skin patches, gum, and lozenges can help you through the early part of quitting by relieving cravings and lessening nicotine withdrawal symptoms. When used properly, NRTs are a safe and effective way to help quit smoking and can double the chances of successfully quitting cigarettes.4 

While there are no FDA-approved NRTs for youth use, talk to your health care provider about treatment options for youth.

Where Do E-Cigarettes Fall on the Continuum of Risk? 

FDA is committed to protecting the public health of all Americans while regulating an addictive product that carries health risks.

We’re conducting ongoing research on potentially less harmful forms of nicotine delivery for adults, such as electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), or e-cigarettes.

Though more research on both individual and population health effects is needed, many studies suggest e-cigarettes and noncombustible tobacco products may be less harmful than combustible cigarettes.

A 2020 Cochrane Library review of ENDS for smoking cessation found:

  • ENDS may help more people to stop smoking for six months or longer than using NRTs or nicotine free e-cigarettes.
  • ENDS may increase quit rates compared to no support, or behavioral support alone.
  • The overall incidence of serious adverse effects related to ENDS is low.5

While these findings back up anecdotal reports, there is not yet enough evidence to support claims that e-cigarettes and other ENDS are effective tools for quitting smoking. The effects are particularly unclear when it comes to newer types of e-cigarettes that have better nicotine delivery, and the effect of ENDS when combined with an NRT.

To date, no e-cigarette has been approved as a cessation device or authorized to make a modified risk claim, and more research is needed to understand the potential risks and benefits these products may offer adults who use tobacco products.

Is Nicotine Hazardous Waste?

Yes. Nicotine, including nicotine salt, is listed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an acute hazardous waste.6 E-cigarettes and e-liquid waste should be disposed of safely and properly. 

Why Can’t My Teen Quit Smoking or Vaping? 

Because their brains are still developing, young people have a higher risk of becoming addicted to the nicotine in tobacco products than adults. 

Many teens don’t understand how easy it is to become addicted to tobacco products. The younger a person is when they start using tobacco, the more ly they are to become addicted.7 

Nicotine exposure during adolescence can disrupt normal brain development and may have long-lasting effects, such as increased impulsivity and mood disorders, such as depression and bipolar disorder.7

Because of nicotine’s powerfully addictive nature and major effects on the developing brain, no tobacco products are safe for youth to use. 

If you’re trying to teach your children or students about the dangers of tobacco use, there are tobacco education resources for parents and teachers that can help. 

Will Smoking or Using Tobacco Products Containing Nicotine Hurt My Baby? 

Nicotine can cross the placenta when a pregnant person uses tobacco products. This can negatively impact the baby, including, but not limited to: premature labor; low birth weight; respiratory failure at birth; and even sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).3, 8, 9, 10 

People who use tobacco products can experience negative health effects on their reproductive health, their pregnancies, and their babies. If you use tobacco products and are considering having a child, consult your doctor and learn more about how you can quit smoking. 

Is FDA Lowering the Levels of Nicotine in Cigarettes? 

Lowering nicotine in cigarettes to a minimally or non-addictive level through the creation of a potential nicotine product standard could decrease the chances that future generations become addicted to cigarettes, and could make it easier for more currently addicted smokers to quit. 

On March 15, 2018, FDA issued an advance notice of proposed rulemaking (ANPRM) seeking public comment on issues and questions related to such a potential nicotine product standard. FDA is constantly gathering new evidence and considering evolving data regarding tobacco products and use, and continues to review all submitted comments in response to the ANPRM. 

Источник: https://www.fda.gov/tobacco-products/health-effects-tobacco-use/nicotine-why-tobacco-products-are-addictive

5 Vaping Facts You Need to Know

Important Facts About Nicotine

Mens Health Heart Health Know Your Heart Risks

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If you have thought about trying to kick a smoking habit, you’re not alone. Nearly 7 of 10 smokers say they want to stop. Quitting smoking is one of the best things you can do for your health — smoking harms nearly every organ in your body, including your heart. Nearly one-third of deaths from heart disease are the result of smoking and secondhand smoke.

You might be tempted to turn to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes, vape pens, and other vaping devices) as a way to ease the transition from traditional cigarettes to not smoking at all.

But is smoking e-cigarettes (also called vaping) better for you than using tobacco products? Can e-cigarettes help you to stop smoking once and for all? Michael Blaha, M.D., M.P.H.

, director of clinical research at the Johns Hopkins Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Heart Disease, shares health information about vaping.

1: Vaping Is Less Harmful Than Smoking, but It’s Still Not Safe

E-cigarettes heat nicotine (extracted from tobacco), flavorings and other chemicals to create an aerosol that you inhale. Regular tobacco cigarettes contain 7,000 chemicals, many of which are toxic. While we don’t know exactly what chemicals are in e-cigarettes, Blaha says “there’s almost no doubt that they expose you to fewer toxic chemicals than traditional cigarettes.”

However, there has also been an outbreak of lung injuries and deaths associated with vaping. As of Jan. 21, 2020, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) confirmed 60 deaths in patients with e-cigarette, or vaping, product use associated lung injury (EVALI).

“These cases appear to predominantly affect people who modify their vaping devices or use black market modified e-liquids. This is especially true for vaping products containing tetrahydrocannabinol (THC),” explains Blaha.

The CDC has identified vitamin E acetate as a chemical of concern among people with EVALI. Vitamin E acetate is a thickening agent often used in THC vaping products, and it was found in all lung fluid samples of EVALI patients examined by the CDC.

The CDC recommends that people:

  • Do not use THC-containing e-cigarette, or vaping, products
  • Avoid using informal sources, such as friends, family or online dealers to obtain a vaping device.
  • Do not modify or add any substances to a vaping device that are not intended by the manufacturer.

2: Research Suggests Vaping Is Bad for Your Heart and Lungs

Nicotine is the primary agent in both regular cigarettes and e-cigarettes, and it is highly addictive. It causes you to crave a smoke and suffer withdrawal symptoms if you ignore the craving. Nicotine is also a toxic substance. It raises your blood pressure and spikes your adrenaline, which increases your heart rate and the lihood of having a heart attack.

Is vaping bad for you? There are many unknowns about vaping, including what chemicals make up the vapor and how they affect physical health over the long term. “People need to understand that e-cigarettes are potentially dangerous to your health,” says Blaha.

“Emerging data suggests links to chronic lung disease and asthma, and associations between dual use of e-cigarettes and smoking with cardiovascular disease.

You’re exposing yourself to all kinds of chemicals that we don’t yet understand and that are probably not safe.”

3: Electronic Cigarettes Are Just As Addictive As Traditional Ones

Both e-cigarettes and regular cigarettes contain nicotine, which research suggests may be as addictive as heroin and cocaine.

What’s worse, says Blaha, many e-cigarette users get even more nicotine than they would from a tobacco product — you can buy extra-strength cartridges, which have a higher concentration of nicotine, or you can increase the e-cigarette’s voltage to get a greater hit of the substance.

Vaping and e-cigarettes are sometimes promoted as ways to help cigarette smokers quit. But what about the reverse? Can vaping lead to regular cigarette smoking later on?

Although they’ve been marketed as an aid to help you quit smoking, e-cigarettes have not received Food and Drug Administration approval as smoking cessation devices. A recent study found that most people who intended to use e-cigarettes to kick the nicotine habit ended up continuing to smoke both traditional and e-cigarettes.

In the light of the EVALI outbreak, the CDC advises adults who use e-cigarettes for smoking cessation to weigh the risks and benefits and consider use of other FDA-approved smoking cessation options.

5: A New Generation Is Getting Hooked on Nicotine

Among youth, e-cigarettes are more popular than any traditional tobacco product. In 2015, the U.S. surgeon general reported that e-cigarette use among high school students had increased by 900%, and 40% of young e-cigarette users had never smoked regular tobacco.

According to Blaha, there are three reasons e-cigarettes may be particularly enticing to young people. First, many teens believe that vaping is less harmful than smoking. Second, e-cigarettes have a lower per-use cost than traditional cigarettes. Finally, vape cartridges are often formulated with flavorings such as apple pie and watermelon that appeal to younger users.

Both youths and adults find the lack of smoke appealing. With no smell, e-cigarettes reduce the stigma of smoking.

“What I find most concerning about the rise of vaping is that people who would’ve never smoked otherwise, especially youth, are taking up the habit,” says Blaha. “It’s one thing if you convert from cigarette smoking to vaping. It’s quite another thing to start up nicotine use with vaping. And, it often leads to using traditional tobacco products down the road.”

There’s a strong link between smoking and cardiovascular disease, and between smoking and cancer. But the sooner you quit, the quicker your body can rebound and repair itself. Talk to your doctor about what smoking cessation program or tools would be best for you. 

One of the best things you can do to protect and improve your health is to stay informed. Your Health is a FREE e-newsletter that serves as your smart, simple connection to the world-class expertise of Johns Hopkins.

Источник: https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/wellness-and-prevention/5-truths-you-need-to-know-about-vaping

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