- Relaxation techniques
- How often?
- Relaxation preparation
- Breathing to relax
- Simple visualisation exercise
- Quick muscle relaxation
- Cued relaxation
- After relaxation
- Relaxation Techniques for Stress Relief — HelpGuide.org
- Relaxation technique #1: Deep breathing
- How to practice deep breathing
- #2: Progressive muscle relaxation
- Practicing progressive muscle relaxation
- #3: Body scan meditation
- #4: Visualization
- Practicing visualization
- #5: Self-massage
- #6: Mindfulness meditation
- #7: Rhythmic movement and mindful exercise
- For maximum stress relief, add mindfulness to your workout
- #8: Yoga and tai chi
- Tai chi
- Tips for starting a relaxation practice
For some people, learning to control their anxiety is all they can hope for if they can't overcome it completely. To help with this, there are various relaxation techniques you can use to calm the mind and reduce the muscle tension anxiety can cause.
If you've any medical conditions – such as problems with your breathing – speak to your GP before trying any relaxation exercises.
You should try to set aside 30 minutes, 2 or 3 times each day to practice these techniques. The more you practice, the better you will get and the more effective they will be.
It's important to keep using these techniques, even if you don't feel better straight away. It will take time and regular practice before you start to feel the benefits.
Before you start relaxing, make sure your mind, body and surroundings are just right. To prepare yourself:
- find a cool and quiet room where you'll not be disturbed
- lie down or sit comfortably with your legs uncrossed
- put on comfortable clothes and take off your shoes
- lightly close your eyes, or focus on a spot in front of you
- clear your thoughts and focus on your breath
Don’t worry if you can’t relax immediately. Thoughts might pop into your mind. Don’t focus on them just let them pass through.
Make a note of how relaxed you were before, and after, the exercises to see if it's helped.
Breathing to relax
Breathing too quickly, and deeply, can make you feel dizzy, faint or even more anxious. Taking slow, regular breaths can help you to control anxious thoughts and feelings, and make you feel calmer.
To control your breathing:
- Place one hand on your chest and the other over your stomach. You want your stomach to move more than your chest as you breathe.
- Take a slow, regular breath in (through your nose if you can). Watch your hands as you breathe in. The hand on your stomach should move and your chest should not.
- Breathe out slowly through pursed lips.
- Repeat this 10 times, twice a day.
It might take time to master this technique. Once you have, you won’t need to watch your hands or put them on your stomach.
Simple visualisation exercise
This exercise involves using an image as a way to focus the mind.
Create in your mind an ideal spot to relax. It can be:
- real or imaginary
- somewhere you will find restful, calming, safe and happy
- a place you would want to return to whenever you feel the need to relax
Imagine it in as much detail as you can – use your senses to make it as real as possible – and see yourself comfortably enjoying this place.
Now close your eyes and take a slow, regular breath in through your nose. Become aware of your breathing. Focus on your relaxation place in all its detail and breathe out through your mouth.
Do this exercise for 10 to 20 minutes.
Quick muscle relaxation
This exercise will teach you to recognise and reduce muscle tension. You can relieve tension in any part of your body just by tensing and relaxing each muscle in turn.
Sitting in a comfortable chair:
- Close your eyes and concentrate on your breathing. Slowly breath in through your nose and out through your mouth.
- Make a fist, squeezing your hand tightly.
- Hold this for a few seconds, noticing the tension.
- Slowly open your fingers and feel the difference – notice the tension leaving. Your hand is much lighter and relaxed. Enjoy this feeling.
If you have any physical injuries or conditions that may cause muscle pain, don’t tense the muscle in that area.
Once you've mastered some relaxation exercises you can use them whenever, and wherever, you need to throughout the day.
To do this you can use a 'cue', something that'll catch your eye and remind you to:
- drop your shoulders
- check your breathing
- relax the muscles in your body
An example of a 'cue' could be a small coloured dot on your watch, or a room in your home, which will act as your reminder.
Don’t rush to get up after relaxation exercises. Sit with your eyes closed for a few minutes to avoid the possibility of feeling dizzy. Open your eyes and make sure you feel all right before standing up.
Relaxation Techniques for Stress Relief — HelpGuide.org
For many of us, relaxation means flopping on the couch and zoning out in front of the TV at the end of a stressful day. But this does little to reduce the damaging effects of stress.
Rather, you need to activate your body’s natural relaxation response, a state of deep rest that puts the brakes on stress, slows your breathing and heart rate, lowers your blood pressure, and brings your body and mind back into balance.
You can do this by practicing relaxation techniques such as deep breathing, meditation, rhythmic exercise, yoga, or tai chi.
While you may choose to pay for a professional massage or acupuncture session, for example, most relaxation techniques can be done on your own or with the aid of a free audio download or inexpensive smartphone app. It’s important to remember, however, that there is no single relaxation technique that works for everyone. We’re all different.
The right technique is the one that resonates with you, fits your lifestyle, and is able to focus your mind to elicit the relaxation response. That means it may require some trial and error to find the technique (or techniques) that work best for you.
Once you do, regular practice can help reduce everyday stress and anxiety, improve your sleep, boost your energy and mood, and improve your overall health and wellbeing.
Relaxation technique #1: Deep breathing
With its focus on full, cleansing breaths, deep breathing is a simple yet powerful relaxation technique. It’s easy to learn, can be practiced almost anywhere, and provides a quick way to get your stress levels in check.
Deep breathing is the cornerstone of many other relaxation practices, too, and can be combined with other relaxing elements such as aromatherapy and music.
While apps and audio downloads can guide you through the process, all you really need is a few minutes and a place to sit quietly or stretch out.
How to practice deep breathing
- Sit comfortably with your back straight. Put one hand on your chest and the other on your stomach.
- Breathe in through your nose. The hand on your stomach should rise. The hand on your chest should move very little.
- Exhale through your mouth, pushing out as much air as you can while contracting your abdominal muscles. The hand on your stomach should move in as you exhale, but your other hand should move very little.
- Continue to breathe in through your nose and out through your mouth. Try to inhale enough so that your lower abdomen rises and falls. Count slowly as you exhale.
If you find it difficult breathing from your abdomen while sitting up, try lying down.
Put a small book on your stomach, and breathe so that the book rises as you inhale and falls as you exhale.
Listen to HelpGuide’s deep breathing meditation.
#2: Progressive muscle relaxation
Progressive muscle relaxation is a two-step process in which you systematically tense and relax different muscle groups in the body.
With regular practice, it gives you an intimate familiarity with what tension—as well as complete relaxation—feels in different parts of your body.
This can help you react to the first signs of the muscular tension that accompanies stress. And as your body relaxes, so will your mind.
Progressive muscle relaxation can be combined with deep breathing for additional stress relief.
Practicing progressive muscle relaxation
Consult with your doctor first if you have a history of muscle spasms, back problems, or other serious injuries that may be aggravated by tensing muscles.
Start at your feet and work your way up to your face, trying to only tense those muscles intended.
- Loosen clothing, take off your shoes, and get comfortable.
- Take a few minutes to breathe in and out in slow, deep breaths.
- When you’re ready, shift your attention to your right foot. Take a moment to focus on the way it feels.
- Slowly tense the muscles in your right foot, squeezing as tightly as you can. Hold for a count of 10.
- Relax your foot. Focus on the tension flowing away and how your foot feels as it becomes limp and loose.
- Stay in this relaxed state for a moment, breathing deeply and slowly.
- Shift your attention to your left foot. Follow the same sequence of muscle tension and release.
- Move slowly up through your body, contracting and relaxing the different muscle groups.
- It may take some practice at first, but try not to tense muscles other than those intended.
Listen to HelpGuide’s progressive muscle relaxation meditation.
#3: Body scan meditation
This is a type of meditation that that focuses your attention on various parts of your body. progressive muscle relaxation, you start with your feet and work your way up. But instead of tensing and relaxing muscles, you simply focus on the way each part of your body feels, without labeling the sensations as either “good” or “bad”.
- Lie on your back, legs uncrossed, arms relaxed at your sides, eyes open or closed. Focus on your breathing for about two minutes until you start to feel relaxed.
- Turn your focus to the toes of your right foot. Notice any sensations you feel while continuing to also focus on your breathing. Imagine each deep breath flowing to your toes. Remain focused on this area for three to five seconds (or more).
- Move your focus to the sole of your right foot. Tune in to any sensations you feel in that part of your body and imagine each breath flowing from the sole of your foot. After one or two minutes, move your focus to your right ankle and repeat. Move to your calf, knee, thigh, hip, and then repeat the sequence for your left leg. From there, move up the torso, through the lower back and abdomen, the upper back and chest, and the shoulders. Pay close attention to any area of the body that causes you pain or discomfort.
- After completing the body scan, relax for a while in silence and stillness, noting how your body feels. Then slowly open your eyes and stretch, if necessary.
Listen to HelpGuide’s body scan meditation.
Visualization, or guided imagery, is a variation on traditional meditation that involves imagining a scene in which you feel at peace, free to let go of all tension and anxiety. Choose whatever setting is most calming to you, whether it’s a tropical beach, a favorite childhood spot, or a quiet wooded glen.
You can practice visualization on your own or with an app or audio download to guide you through the imagery. You can also choose to do your visualization in silence or use listening aids, such as soothing music or a sound machine or a recording that matches your chosen setting: the sound of ocean waves if you’ve chosen a beach, for example.
Close your eyes and imagine your restful place. Picture it as vividly as you can: everything you see, hear, smell, taste, and feel. Just “looking” at it in your mind’s eye you would a photograph is not enough. Visualization works best if you incorporate as many sensory details as possible. For example, if you are thinking about a dock on a quiet lake:
- See the sun setting over the water
- Hear the birds singing
- Smell the pine trees
- Feel the cool water on your bare feet
- Taste the fresh, clean air
Enjoy the feeling of your worries drifting away as you slowly explore your restful place. When you are ready, gently open your eyes and come back to the present.
Don’t worry if you sometimes zone out or lose track of where you are during a visualization session. This is normal.
You may also experience feelings of heaviness in your limbs, muscle twitches, or yawning. Again, these are normal responses.
Listen to HelpGuide’s guided imagery meditation.
You’re probably already aware how much a professional massage at a spa or health club can help reduce stress, relieve pain, and ease muscle tension. What you may not be aware of is that you can experience some of the same benefits at home or work by practicing self-massage, or trading massages with a loved one.
Try taking a few minutes to massage yourself at your desk between tasks, on the couch at the end of a hectic day, or in bed to help you unwind before sleep. To enhance relaxation, you can use aromatic oil, scented lotion, or combine self-message with mindfulness or deep breathing techniques.
#6: Mindfulness meditation
Mindfulness has become extremely popular in recent years, garnering headlines and endorsements from celebrities, business leaders, and psychologists a. So, what is mindfulness? Rather than worrying about the future or dwelling on the past, mindfulness switches your focus to what’s happening right now, enabling you to be fully engaged in the present moment.
Meditations that cultivate mindfulness have long been used to reduce stress, anxiety, depression, and other negative emotions.
Some of these practices bring you into the present by focusing your attention on a single repetitive action, such as your breathing or a few repeated words.
Other forms of mindfulness meditation encourage you to follow and then release internal thoughts or sensations. Mindfulness can also be applied to activities such as walking, exercising, or eating.
Using mindfulness to stay focused on the present might seem straightforward, but it takes practice to reap all the benefits. When you first start practicing, you’ll ly find that your focus keeps wandering back to your worries or regrets. But don’t get disheartened.
Each time you draw your focus back to the present, you’re strengthening a new mental habit that can help you break free of fretting about the past or stressing about the future.
Using an app or audio download can also help focus your attention, especially when you’re starting out.
Listen to HelpGuide’s mindful breathing meditation.
#7: Rhythmic movement and mindful exercise
The idea of exercising may not sound particularly soothing, but rhythmic exercise that gets you into a flow of repetitive movement can produce the relaxation response. Examples include:
For maximum stress relief, add mindfulness to your workout
While simply engaging in rhythmic exercise will help you relieve stress, adding a mindfulness component can benefit you even more.
As with meditation, mindful exercise requires being fully engaged in the present moment, paying attention to how your body feels right now, rather than your daily worries or concerns. Instead of zoning out or staring at a TV as you exercise, focus on the sensations in your limbs and how your breathing complements your movement.
If you’re walking or running, for example, focus on the sensation of your feet touching the ground, the rhythm of your breath, and the feeling of the wind against your face.
If you’re resistance training, focus on coordinating your breathing with your movements and pay attention to how your body feels as you raise and lower the weights.
And when your mind wanders to other thoughts, gently return your focus to your breathing and movement.
#8: Yoga and tai chi
Yoga involves a series of both moving and stationary poses, combined with deep breathing. As well as reducing anxiety and stress, yoga can also improve flexibility, strength, balance, and stamina.
Since injuries can happen when yoga is practiced incorrectly, it’s best to learn by attending group classes, hiring a private teacher, or at least following video instructions.
Once you’ve learned the basics, you can practice alone or with others, tailoring your practice as you see fit.
If you’re unsure whether a specific yoga class is appropriate for stress relief, call the studio or ask the teacher.
If you’ve seen a group of people in the park slowly moving in synch, you’ve ly witnessed tai chi. Tai chi is a self-paced series of slow, flowing body movements. By focusing your mind on the movements and your breathing, you keep your attention on the present, which clears the mind and leads to a relaxed state.
Tai chi is a safe, low-impact option for people of all ages and fitness levels, including older adults and those recovering from injuries. As with yoga, it’s best learned in a class or from a private instructor. Once you’ve learned the basics, you can practice alone or with others.
Tips for starting a relaxation practice
Learning the basics of these relaxation techniques isn’t difficult, but it takes regular practice to truly harness their stress-relieving power. Try setting aside at least 10 to 20 minutes a day for your relaxation practice.
Set aside time in your daily schedule. If possible, schedule a set time once or twice a day for your practice. If your schedule is already packed, try meditating while commuting on the bus or train, taking a yoga or tai chi break at lunchtime, or practicing mindful walking while exercising your dog.
Make use of smartphone apps and other aids. Many people find that smartphone apps or audio downloads can be useful in guiding them through different relaxation practices, establishing a regular routine, and keeping track of progress.
Expect ups and downs. Sometimes it can take time and practice to start reaping the full rewards of relaxation techniques such as meditation. The more you stick with it, the sooner the results will come. If you skip a few days or even a few weeks, don’t get discouraged. Just get started again and slowly build up to your old momentum.
Authors: Lawrence Robinson, Robert Segal, M.A., Jeanne Segal, Ph.D., and Melinda Smith, M.A.
Last updated: September 2020