How to Identify Your Emotions When You’re Depressed

Identifying anxiety, depression signs

How to Identify Your Emotions When You’re Depressed

What is stress, and what happens when we aren’t able to cope well with stress? Stress can present itself after being fired from a job, going through a divorce or losing a loved one. Even getting married, transitioning to a new job or having a baby can cause stress.

Many people look to define stress as either good or bad, when in reality it’s neither. Stress is an event we view as our control and typically occurs outside our daily routines. How we react shapes our ability to cope with these and other similar events in the future. When individuals struggle to cope with stressful situations, depression and anxiety become more noticeable.

According to the World Health Organization, anxiety disorders are the most common mental illness in the U.S., affecting more than 40 million adults (18.1 percent of the population) every year.

The most common anxiety disorders include excessive fear or anxiety of:

  • Specific phobias
    • Animals — spider, cats, dogs
    • Natural environment — heights, storms, water
    • Blood-injection injury — needles, invasive medical procedures
    • Locations — airplanes, elevators, enclosed places
  • Social anxiety disorder — being around other people
  • Generalized anxiety disorder — worry about many things

It’s common for those struggling with anxiety disorders to also struggle with depression or vice versa. Close to 10 percent of the world’s population suffers from anxiety and depression. However, while anxiety and depressive disorders are highly treatable, only a small percent of affected individuals receive treatment.

HOW ARE STRESS, ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION CONNECTED?

Anxiety and depression can be caused by a number of things, including:

  • Genetics
  • Environmental exposure
  • Personality
  • A life event

EARLY SIGNS OF ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION

An early warning sign for anxiety and/or depression occurs when someone begins avoiding things they once enjoyed. Other warning signs for anxiety include:

  • Shakiness
  • Increased heart rate
  • Tightness in the chest and/or rapid breathing
  • Racing thoughts

Meanwhile, warning signs for depression include:

  • Isolating oneself
  • Frequently thinking negative thoughts
  • Reoccurring feelings of sadness

TIPS TO COPE WITH ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION

Diaphragmatic and square breathing techniques. Diaphragmatic breathing involves taking a deep breath from your diaphragm. Your stomach should expand as you breathe in.

Square breathing techniques involve taking a deep breath in for five counts, holding this deep breath for five counts, exhaling for five counts and finally holding for five counts before repeating.

The entire time should be spent focusing on your breath versus the stressful event.

Challenging your thoughts and changing your thoughts. This involves not placing judgment on situations, good or bad, and recognizing that while situations do occur, it’s important to acknowledge what you’re feeling and identify what’s in your control. Your primary areas of control are acknowledgement of your emotions, feelings and your reaction to stressful situations.

  • Ask yourself:What am I feeling?
  • What are these emotions?
  • How would I the situation to turn out?

Then, identify small, specific goals to get to your desired outcome. If you fail to acknowledge your emotions and feelings and attach a negative thought to a situation, the outcome of that situation will result in avoidance and increased anxiety.

Instead, challenge yourself to find the positive in a potential situation and acknowledge whatever emotions and feelings the situation reveals. Doing so increases the lihood you’ll be able to cope effectively with a stressful situation.

ADVANCED SIGNS OF ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION

Advanced signs of generalized anxiety disorder include:

  • Excessive worry occurring more days than not for at least six months
  • Distress or impairment in social, occupational or other important areas of functioning
  • Feeling restless
  • Fatigue or frequently feeling tired
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Irritability
  • Muscle tension
  • Sleep disturbances (difficulty falling or staying asleep)

Advanced signs of a major depressive disorder include:

  • Feeling down or depressed most of the day, nearly every day
  • Diminished interest in activities you once enjoyed
  • Significant changes in your weight (increased or decreased)
  • Difficulty with sleep (insomnia or hypersomnia)
  • Fatigue or frequently feeling tired
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Recurrent thoughts of death over at least a two-week period
  • Impairment in social, occupational or other important areas of functioning

WHEN TO SEEK PROFESSIONAL HELP

It’s best to talk to a professional health care provider when:

  • You find it difficult to function in your daily life
  • You no longer participate in activities you once enjoyed
  • You find it difficult to get bed

TREATMENT FOR ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION

Treatment can include outpatient psychotherapy (talk therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, dialectical behavioral therapy), outpatient medication management and potentially inpatient mental health hospitalization. Additional treatment may include changing your exercise or eating habits, utilizing social supports, avoiding the use of alcohol and recreational drugs, and/or joining a support group.

WHY IT'S IMPORTANT TO ADDRESS YOUR MENTAL HEALTH

It’s important for people to address their mental health in order to live a life that’s fulfilling. Acknowledging and treating your mental health helps create resilience. It also teaches you to better cope so when a similar situation occurs, you are equipped to handle it.

Stressful situations are going to happen. How we react can determine how it impacts us. There are many resources available in regard to anxiety, depression and stress. Please contact your health care provider to answer any questions you have.

Jolene Hanson is a licensed independent clinical social worker at in Mankato, Minnesota.

Источник: https://www.mayoclinichealthsystem.org/hometown-health/speaking-of-health/addressing-your-mental-health-by-identifying-the-signs-of-anxiety-and-depression

Depression in Women: 5 Things You Should Know

How to Identify Your Emotions When You’re Depressed

Being sad is a normal reaction to difficult times in life. But usually, the sadness goes away with a little time.

Depression is different—it is a mood disorder that may cause severe symptoms that can affect how you feel, think, and handle daily activities such as sleeping, eating, or working.

Depression is more common among women than men, ly due to certain biological, hormonal, and social factors that are unique to women.

This brochure contains an overview of five things that everyone should know about depression in women.

Depression is a common but serious mood disorder. Depression symptoms can interfere with your ability to work, sleep, study, eat, and enjoy your life.

Although researchers are still studying the causes of depression, current research suggests that depression is caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors.

Most people with depression need treatment to feel better.

You can’t just ‘snap out’ of depression

Well-meaning friends or family members may try to tell someone with depression to “snap it,” “just be positive,” or “you can be happier if you just try harder.” But depression is not a sign of a person’s weakness or a character flaw. The truth is that most people who experience depression need treatment to get better.

If you are a friend or family member of a woman with depression, you can offer emotional support, understanding, patience, and encouragement. But never dismiss her feelings. Encourage her to talk to her health care provider, and remind her that, with time and treatment, she can feel better.

Most people with depression need treatment to feel better

If you think you may have depression, start by making an appointment to see your health care provider. This could be your primary doctor or a health provider who specializes in diagnosing and treating mental health conditions (for example, a psychologist or psychiatrist).

Certain medications, and some medical conditions, such as viruses or a thyroid disorder, can cause the same symptoms as depression. A health care provider can rule out these possibilities by doing a physical exam, interview, and lab tests.

Your health care provider will examine you and talk to you about treatment options and next steps.

Sadness is only a small part of depression. Some people with depression do not feel sadness at all. A person with depression also may experience many physical symptoms, such as aches or pains, headaches, cramps, or digestive problems. Someone with depression also may have trouble with sleeping, waking up in the morning, and feeling tired.

If you have been experiencing any of the following signs and symptoms for at least two weeks, you may be suffering from depression:

  • Persistent sad, anxious, or “empty” mood
  • Feelings of hopelessness or pessimism
  • Irritability
  • Feelings of guilt, worthlessness, or helplessness
  • Decreased energy or fatigue
  • Difficulty sleeping, early morning awakening, or oversleeping
  • Loss of interest or pleasure in hobbies and activities
  • Moving or talking more slowly
  • Feeling restless or having trouble sitting still
  • Difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions
  • Changes in appetite or weight
  • Thoughts of death or suicide, or suicide attempts
  • Aches or pains, headaches, cramps, or digestive problems without a clear physical cause that do not ease even with treatment

Talk to your health care provider about these symptoms. Be honest, clear, and concise—your provider needs to know how you feel.

Your health care provider may ask when your symptoms started, what time of day they happen, how long they last, how often they occur, if they seem to be getting worse or better, and if they keep you from going out or doing your usual activities. It may help to take the time to make some notes about your symptoms before you visit your provider.

Pregnancy, the postpartum period, perimenopause, and the menstrual cycle are all associated with dramatic physical and hormonal changes. Certain types of depression can occur at different stages of a woman’s life.

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD)

Premenstrual syndrome, or PMS, refers to moodiness and irritability in the weeks before menstruation. It is quite common, and the symptoms are usually mild.

But there is a less common, more severe form of PMS called premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD).

PMDD is a serious condition with disabling symptoms such as irritability, anger, depressed mood, sadness, suicidal thoughts, appetite changes, bloating, breast tenderness, and joint or muscle pain.

Perinatal Depression

Being pregnant isn’t easy. Pregnant women commonly deal with morning sickness, weight gain, and mood swings. Caring for a newborn is challenging, too.

Many new moms experience the “baby blues”—a term used to describe mild mood changes and feelings of worry, unhappiness, and exhaustion that many women sometimes experience in the first two weeks after having a baby.

These feelings usually last a week or two and then go away as a new mom adjusts to having a newborn.

Perinatal depression is a mood disorder that can affect women during pregnancy and after childbirth, and is much more serious than the “baby blues.” The word “perinatal” refers to the time before and after the birth of a child.

Perinatal depression includes depression that begins during pregnancy (called prenatal depression) and depression that begins after the baby is born (called postpartum depression).

Mothers with perinatal depression experience feelings of extreme sadness, anxiety, and fatigue that may make it difficult for them to carry out daily tasks, including caring for themselves, their new child, or others.

If you think you have perinatal depression, you should talk to your health care provider or trained mental health care professional. If you see any signs of depression in a loved one during her pregnancy or after the child is born, encourage her to see a health care provider or visit a clinic.

To learn more about perinatal depression, see the National Institute of Mental Health’s (NIMH) Perinatal Depression brochure.

Perimenopausal Depression

Perimenopause (the transition into menopause) is a normal phase in a woman’s life that can sometimes be challenging.

If you are going through perimenopause, you might be experiencing abnormal periods, problems sleeping, mood swings, and hot flashes. Although these symptoms are common, feeling depressed is not.

If you are struggling with irritability, anxiety, sadness, or loss of enjoyment at the time of the menopause transition, you may be experiencing perimenopausal depression.

Depression affects each woman differently

Not every woman who is depressed experiences every symptom. Some women experience only a few symptoms. Others have many. The severity and frequency of symptoms, and how long they last, will vary depending on the individual and the severity of the illness.

Even the most severe cases of depression can be treated. Depression is commonly treated with medication, psychotherapy (also called “talk therapy”), or a combination of the two.

Antidepressants are medications commonly used to treat depression. People respond differently to antidepressants, and you may need to try different medicines to find the one that works best.

Researchers also are studying and developing other medications for depression, such as brexanolone for postpartum depression, and esketamine.

You can learn about recent developments on these and other medications at NIMH's Science News webpage under the topic “Treatments.”

There are many different types of psychotherapy, such as cognitive behavioral therapy or interpersonal therapy. The particular approach a therapist uses depends on the condition being treated and the training and experience of the therapist. Therapists also may combine and adapt elements of different approaches.

Depression affects each individual differently. There is no “one-size-fits-all” for treatment. It may take some trial and error to find the treatment that works best.

You can learn more about the different types of depression treatment, including psychotherapy, medication, and brain stimulation therapies, on the NIMH’s webpage about depression.

Visit the Food and Drug Administration website for the latest information on warnings, patient medication guides, and newly approved medications.

Therapists and patients work together, and finding a good match is important. The following tips can help you find the right therapist.

Ask about their areas of expertise. Therapists have different professional backgrounds and specialties. You want to find a therapist who has experience working with your specific condition.

Find out what kinds of treatments they use. Ask if those treatments are effective for dealing with your particular mental health problem or issue.

Find out how you’ll evaluate progress. Determine how long treatment is expected to last, and when you should expect to gain relief from symptoms and improve your quality of life.

Don’t be afraid to keep looking. Rapport and trust are essential. Discussions in therapy are deeply personal, and it’s important that you feel comfortable with the therapist you pick.

Researchers continue to study depression to improve the way this medical condition is diagnosed and treated. For example, NIMH researchers are currently working to understand how and why changes in reproductive hormones trigger mood disorders, including postpartum depression, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, and perimenopausal depression.

NIMH scientists are conducting a large number of research studies with patients and healthy volunteers to better understand why some women are at higher risk than others, and how they can translate these findings into new treatments or new uses of existing treatments.

You can play a role in research by joining a clinical trial

Clinical trials are research studies that look at new ways to prevent, detect, or treat diseases and conditions. The goal of clinical trials is to determine if a new test or treatment works and is safe.

Although individuals may benefit from being part of a clinical trial, participants should be aware that the primary purpose of a clinical trial is to gain new scientific knowledge so that others may be better helped in the future.

In addition to volunteer research opportunities for the patient groups listed above, research opportunities for healthy volunteers are also available. Healthy volunteers play a critical role in our studies.

For more information about clinical research and how to find clinical trials being conducted around the country, visit NIMH's clinical trials webpage.

The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) provides the Behavioral Health Treatment Services Locator, an online resource for locating mental health treatment facilities and programs in your state. For additional resources, visit our Help for Mental Illnesses webpage.

If you are in immediate distress or are thinking about hurting yourself, call the National Suicide Prevention Hotline toll-free at 1-800-273-TALK (8255). You also can text the Crisis Text Line (HELLO to 741741) or use the Lifeline Chat on the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline website.

This publication is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission from NIMH. Citation of NIMH as a source is appreciated. To learn more about using NIMH publications, please refer to these guidelines.

MedlinePlus (National Library of Medicine) (En español)

ClinicalTrials.gov (En español)

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health NIH Publication No. 20-MH-4779

Revised 2020

Источник: https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/depression-in-women

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