How Sociopaths Are Different from Psychopaths

Psychopath vs. Sociopath — GoodTherapy.org Therapy Blog

How Sociopaths Are Different from Psychopaths

Many people use the terms “psychopath” and “sociopath” interchangeably. They are most often used about someone that is considered to be without a conscience. The societal definitions revolve around one’s approach to violence, anger, hatred, and emotionlessness. Both of these terms are bandied about on detective shows and true crime podcasts, but what do they actually mean? 

The truth is, there still aren’t hard and fast definitions for either term. Indeed, they are sometimes (though decreasingly) used interchangeably. This article explores what seem to be the most common understandings of psychopathy and sociopathy within the mental health field. 

First, We Must Understand Antisocial Personality 

It’s important to note from the outset that both psychopathy and sociopathy are controversial ideas in the world of psychology. Neither appears in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders V (DSM-V) as a diagnosis.

However, it does mention that both “psychopath” and “sociopath” are terms used to describe people who are diagnosed with Anti-Social Personality Disorder (ASPD). Dr. Donald W. Black describes ASPD as “defined by a pattern of socially irresponsible, exploitative, and guiltless behaviour.

Symptoms include failure to conform to law, failure to sustain consistent employment, manipulation of others for personal gain, deception of others, and failure to develop stable interpersonal relationships.” Many consider psychopathy and sociopathy to be two different varieties of ASPD.

  Consider ASPD the “big bucket” term, pink, and psychopathy and sociopathy as smaller buckets, fuchsia, rose, and pastel pink.

What Is a Psychopath?

A psychopath is someone with ASPD who behaves in an amoral and antisocial way, lacks the capacity to love others or establish meaningful relationships in their personal life, demonstrates a remarkably self-centered perspective (i.e.

, extreme egocentrism), and doesn’t learn lessons from experience.

It’s believed that psychopathy is detectable through brain scans—in fact, there is a fascinating case about a brilliant neuroscientist who discovered he had the brain of a psychopath by accident. 

Characteristics of a Psychopath

  • Pretends to Care
  • Cold and Calculating
  • May Mimic Emotions
  • Does Not Recognize Others’ Distress
  • Maintains Shallow Relationships
  • Cannot Form Emotional Attachments

What Is a Sociopath?

“Sociopath” describes someone with ASPD who has a pattern of antisocial behaviors and attitudes such as manipulation, deceit, aggression, and lack of empathy for others.

Characteristics of a Sociopath

  • Clearly Does Not Care About Others
  • Hot-Headed
  • Acts Impulsively
  • Prone to Fits of Rage
  • Rationalizes Their Behavior
  • Sometimes Forms Emotional Attachments

Psychopath vs. Sociopath: Key Contrasts

Given that sociopathy and psychopathy are both subsets of Antisocial Personality Disorder, it’s unsurprising that there’s quite a bit of overlap between psychopaths and sociopaths. However, there are some key differences. 

  • Moral Compass: A sociopath understands that what they are doing is technically wrong, but they have rationalized their behavior in their own minds. A psychopath, on the other hand, doesn’t see their actions as wrong at all. The psychopath’s lack of conscience means they don’t feel guilt, while a sociopath may experience guilt. 
  • Interpersonal Connections: While sociopaths and psychopaths both struggle to forge emotional attachments with others, psychopaths are incapable of doing so, while sociopaths can actually have a few meaningful relationships in their life. 

ASPD and Violence

When most of us think about psychopaths and sociopaths, our first thought isn’t the high-powered executive or the brilliant doctor; it’s the serial killers of the world.

The most common misconception about both psychopaths and sociopaths is that they are inherently violent. Many people with ASPD who might be described as psychopathic or sociopathic never harm others or act violently.

Nevertheless, some of the most violent people in history did have ASPD.

Where Do Narcissists Fit in?

Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) is an entirely different diagnosis that is often confused by the general public with ASPD, especially with sociopathy.

According to the DSM-V, narcissists have a sense of entitlement, arrogance, and self-importance; consider themselves special; take advantage of others; need admiration; lack empathy; and are obsessed with the fantasies of boundless power.

While there is some overlap between ASPD and NPD, and an individual can be diagnosed with both, there are some fundamental differences between these diagnoses. 

Treatment and Outcomes

Personality disorders are not curable. However, there is a wide variety of outcomes for people with this diagnosis. Treating ASPD is difficult but valuable. People with ASPD can tend toward illegal or risky behavior, but many don’t take this path and have very successful professional lives. 

As with many other mental health concerns, ASPD is often accompanied by co-occurring disorders, such as depression and substance abuse. It’s important for the antisocial person to pursue treatment for any co-occurring disorders they may have. 

While there isn’t yet a “gold standard” treatment for those with ASPD, studies seem to indicate that psychotherapy (i.e., “talk therapy”) can yield behavioral results, particularly when it comes to criminal recidivism. Research is ongoing into the effectiveness of treating antisocial persons in a variety of ways. 

Show Support

If you know someone who may have ASPD, remember that they may not be aware of it. Either way, it is important to show support if you’re part of their life. 

Keep Healthy Boundaries

Since people with ASPD are often prone to manipulation, it’s best for you and them if you establish boundaries in your relationship that will keep you both safe from toxicity.

Remember that your character is about you—for example, if kindness is an important value to you, keep being kind, even if you can’t “be nice” all the time.

Boundaries will help you be your best self in all your relationships, including (and maybe especially) this one. 

Encourage Them to Seek Treatment

The most important thing a person can do to help someone with ASPD is to encourage them to seek professional help. If you or someone you know might have ASPD, rest assured that there are mental health providers who have been trained to help. 

Room for Hope

Getting an Antisocial Personality diagnosis can be scary, but you can find support and help. Generalities—including diagnoses—can be helpful, but they can also feel life sentences.

Don’t let your diagnosis define you; it’s meant to be a tool to help you and others understand the way you’re wired. While the “typical” person with ASPD probably wouldn’t reach out for help, you don’t have to fit that mold.

There is always hope for growth.

References

Black, D. W. (2015). The natural history of antisocial personality disorder. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 60(7), 309-314. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4500180

Robinson, K. M. (2014, August 24). Sociopath vs. psychopath: What’s the difference? Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/mental-health/features/sociopath-psychopath-difference#1

Wilson, H. A. (2014, March 5). Can antisocial personality disorder be treated? A meta-analysis examining the effectiveness of treatment in reducing recidivism for individuals diagnosed with ASPD. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 13(1), 36-46. Retrieved from https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/14999013.2014.890682?journalCode=ufmh20

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Источник: https://www.goodtherapy.org/blog/Psychopath-vs-Sociopath

What Is the Difference Between Psychopath and Sociopath? ASPD

How Sociopaths Are Different from Psychopaths
Psychopaths may exhibit more severe negative behaviors than sociopaths

The terms «psychopath» and «sociopath» are often used interchangeably to refer to people who are pathologically prone to hurting others, engaging in violence or criminal behavior and have no regard for the feelings or interests of others.

There is no major clinical difference between sociopaths and psychopaths. Both are classified as antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), a category of personality disorders that includes persistent negative behaviors.

While sociopaths and psychopaths share many traits (lack of guilt, charisma, manipulation, etc.), several studies have shown that psychopaths may exhibit more severe negative behaviors than sociopaths.

Do they have a conscience?

Sociopaths are more ly to know what they’re doing is wrong but have a weak moral compass that doesn’t cause them to stop their bad behavior. Psychopaths, on the other hand, have been found not to have a conscience at all. 

Are they violent?

Both sociopaths and psychopaths can be violent. Sociopaths may not always get physically violent, whereas psychopaths have a greater tendency to get aggressive and commit serious crimes that are punishable by law. 

Similarly, while sociopaths can cause harm to others, it may not always be serious. The harm caused by psychopaths tends to be more severe and put others in danger. 

Are they born or made? 

Psychology researchers generally believe that psychopaths tend to be born (ly a genetic predisposition), and that psychopathy may be related to physiological brain differences.

Sociopaths, however, are often made by their environment, although psychopaths may also have suffered some sort of childhood trauma contributing to their condition.

Are they impulsive?

Sociopaths tend to be more erratic in their behavior as compared to psychopaths. Un psychopaths, they may be unable to hold down long-term jobs or present much of normal family life to the outside world. When a sociopath commits a crime, it is usually impulsive and unplanned, with little regard for the risks or consequences of their actions. 

Crimes committed by psychopaths, by contrast, are usually planned and have a pattern. This is why serial killers are often labeled as psychopaths, as many of them can appear normal and even charming on the outside while being cold-hearted and calculating on the inside.

How can you tell if someone is a sociopath or psychopath?

When the DSM–5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition) diagnostic criteria are considered, sociopaths and psychopaths share all symptoms, with a few symptoms being more severe in psychopaths. 

For someone to be diagnosed with ASPD, at least three of the following seven traits must be present over an extended period:

  1. Lack of respect for social norms or laws and the tendency to break laws
  2. Constantly lie, deceive and manipulate others, or use false identities or nicknames for personal gain
  3. Don’t make any long-term plans and act without thinking of consequences
  4. Exhibit aggressive or aggravated behavior causing mental or physical harm to others
  5. Not concerned about their safety or the safety of others
  6. Don’t keep their word and or follow through on personal or professional responsibilities
  7. Lack of guilt, remorse, empathy or sympathy after hurting or mistreating others

Other possible signs and symptoms include:

  • Being cold and rude 
  • Not showing emotions 
  • Using humor, intelligence or charisma to manipulate others
  • Feeling a sense of superiority and feeling invisible
  • Not learning from mistakes
  • Unable to maintain positive friendships and relationships
  • Prefer being isolated
  • Intimidating or threatening others 
  • Trying to control others 
  • Committing crime and facing legal consequences frequently 
  • Threatening to commit suicide 
  • Substance abuse (addicted to drugs, alcohol or other substances)
  • Stealing 
  • Being aggressive toward animals by hurting or killing them

To receive a diagnosis of ASPD, the individual must be over 18 years of age. Both psychopaths and sociopaths may go their entire lives without a diagnosis, while causing pain to the people around them.

Sometimes, people who exhibit selfish behavior are labeled as sociopathic or psychopathic. However, this is not sufficient to diagnose someone with ASPD.

A diagnosis can be made only when the symptoms are persistent for an extended period and don’t change because of punishment or lifestyle changes.

A selfish person may exhibit certain behaviors of a sociopath or psychopath for a short while, but they may have a conscience and moral compass that makes them feel bad about their behavior and then change.

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Medically Reviewed on 4/29/2021

References

https://www.nhs.uk/mental-health/conditions/antisocial-personality-disorder/

https://mha-em.org/im-looking-for/mental-health-knowledge-base/conditions/127-psychopathy-vs-sociopathy https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK546673/

Источник: https://www.medicinenet.com/what_is_the_difference_between_psychopath_and_soci/article.htm

The Neurological Differences Between Psychopaths and Sociopaths

How Sociopaths Are Different from Psychopaths

(Credit: Photographee.eu/Shutterstock)

Both psychopaths and sociopaths are severe types of an antisocial behavior, capable of extreme violence and a disregard for the feelings and experiences of other individuals. While they both undoubtedly present a danger to society, they also have significant differences, which start to manifest at birth.

“The psychopath is born with a psychopathic brain, which … doesn’t function properly to allow for normal social experiences,” explains Scott Johnson, a psychologist and independent consultant who provides forensic mental health training to law enforcement and prosecutors. “The sociopath, on the other hand, we believe is born with normal brain, but something goes wrong during their nurturing.”

Childhood neglect and abuse is a major predictor for serious antisocial behaviors such as sociopathy in later life.

That isn’t to say that everyone – or even most people – who were abused as a child go on to become a sociopath, but studies have consistently shown that sociopaths are more ly to have been a victim of child abuse than the general population.

Psychological trauma as a child is thought to interfere with proper brain development, which may explain why this a link, says Johnson.

Brain Basis

Though the cause may differ, psychopaths and sociopaths both have brain differences, particularly when it comes to their morality centers. This often shows up on CT and PET scans.

They also tend to lack empathy and sympathy almost entirely, particularly psychopaths. “They often just seem don’t care for other people at all,” says Johnson.

They might enjoy the feeling of inflicting pain or exercising control over others, unincumbered by feelings of guilt, anxiety or remorse.

There are some significant differences between the two phenomena, however. Psychopaths are better at delaying gratification. Subsequently, they can meticulously plan their wrongdoings – not all of which are inevitably violent. Psychopaths also commonly commit financial fraud.

“A psychopath doesn’t necessarily need to hurt someone physically, their motivation can be narcissism and a thrill of what they perceive as ‘the game’ and that can be achieved in different ways,” explains Johnson.

“Approximately 70 percent of psychopaths cross the line into sexual or physical violence.”

Sociopaths, however, are even more ly to be violent, but less ly to be calculating. They struggle to delay their gratification and frequently lash out. “Almost all sociopaths cross over the line into violence. They’re not cunning enough to prepare an attack, they act on impulse.” Because of this, sociopaths are more ly to be caught than psychopaths.

Psychopaths are probably more dangerous the long run, says Johnson, precisely because they can hide it for longer ­– possibly why they get more mention in popular culture than sociopaths.

Hollywood Influence

It seems, however, that Hollywood does a bad job in trying to portray these various traits.

Karen Davis, an assistant professor of psychology at State University of New York College at Cortland, and colleagues recently examined whether 24 movie characters that have been described as psychopathic really deserve the label.

In a 2020 study, she assessed the characters using a professional test commonly used by mental health professions in legal proceedings to come to a diagnosis. Just 21 percent of the sample passed the test to be legitimately called a psychopath.

Interestingly, if not surprisingly, she also found that mental health slurs were frequently used in the films’ dialogue. “The most common terms used in the movies to describe characters were derogatory,” she concluded in the study. “A large percentage of characters were referred to as “crazy”.”

While the silver screen may have a long way to go before it sets the right tone for its portrayals of psychopaths and mental illness more generally, law enforcement officials rely on a proficient assessment of whether a suspect is a psychopath or a sociopath.

Knowing the answer can help inform interview techniques and even where to look for evidence, says Johnson. For example, a psychopath is more challenging to question; they’ll keep their cool and make sure to mimic what they think would be the normal and innocent response to an interrogation.

“A sociopath, meanwhile, blows up under interview and that’s their downfall because that’s when they end up revealing something,” says Johnson.

Источник: https://www.discovermagazine.com/mind/the-neurological-differences-between-psychopaths-and-sociopaths

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