How Arsenic in Cigarette Smoke Hurts Your Health

Harmful Chemicals in Tobacco Products | American Cancer Society

How Arsenic in Cigarette Smoke Hurts Your Health

All types of tobacco products contain chemicals that can be harmful to your health.

Tobacco smoke

Cigarettes, cigars, and pipe tobacco are made from dried tobacco leaves. Other substances are added for flavor and to make smoking more pleasant. The smoke from these products is a complex mixture of chemicals produced by burning tobacco and its additives.

Tobacco smoke is made up of thousands of chemicals, including at least 70 known to cause cancer. These cancer-causing chemicals are referred to as carcinogens. Some of the chemicals found in tobacco smoke include: 

  • Nicotine (the addictive drug that produces the effects in the brain that people are looking for)
  • Hydrogen cyanide
  • Formaldehyde
  • Lead
  • Arsenic
  • Ammonia
  • Radioactive elements, such as polonium-210 (see below)
  • Benzene
  • Carbon monoxide
  • Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs)
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

Many of these substances cause cancer. Some can cause heart disease, lung disease, or other serious health problems, too. Most of the substances come from the burning tobacco leaves themselves, not from additives included in cigarettes (or other tobacco products). 

Radioactive materials in tobacco smoke

Radioactive materials are in the tobacco leaves used to make cigarettes and cigars.

These materials come from the fertilizer and soil used to grow the tobacco leaves, so the amount in tobacco depends on the soil the plants were grown in and the type of fertilizers used.

These radioactive materials are given off in the smoke when tobacco is burned, which people who smoke take into their lungs as they inhale. This may be another key factor in people who smoke getting lung cancer.

Is cigar smoke different?

Cigar smoke has many of the same toxic and carcinogenic compounds as cigarette smoke, but some of them are present at different levels.

Because of the aging process used to make cigars, cigar tobacco has high concentrations of some nitrogen compounds (nitrates and nitrites). When cigar tobacco is smoked, these compounds give off several tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), some of the most potent cancer-causing substances known.

Also, because the cigar wrapper is less porous than a cigarette wrapper, the tobacco doesn’t burn as completely. This results in higher concentrations of nitrogen oxides, ammonia, carbon monoxide, and tar – all very harmful substances.

To learn more, see Health Risks of Smoking Tobacco.

Smokeless tobacco products

The main smokeless tobacco products in the United States are snuff and chewing tobacco, which are put into the mouth or nose but are not burned cigarettes or cigars.

Smokeless tobacco products contain a variety of potentially harmful chemicals, including high levels of TSNAs.

 There are also other cancer-causing agents in smokeless tobacco, such as polonium-210 (a radioactive element) and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

These carcinogens are absorbed through the mouth and may be why several types of cancer are linked to the use of smokeless tobacco.

Snus (pronounced ‘snoose’) is a type of moist snuff that does not require spitting. It was first used in Sweden and Norway, but it is now available in the United States as well. Snus generally has lower levels of nicotine and TSNAs than traditional moist snuff brands, but it can still be addictive and has been linked to some types of cancer. 

Dissolvable products are forms of smokeless tobacco that come in different shapes and sizes, such as lozenges, orbs, pellets, thin strips, and sticks. Depending on the type, they are held in the mouth, chewed, or sucked until they dissolve. other tobacco products, dissolvable tobacco products contain nicotine and other harmful and potentially harmful chemicals.

Heated tobacco products (sometimes called “heat-not-burn” products) typically use an electronic heating element, which heats specially designed sticks, plugs, or capsules containing tobacco.

The heat releases nicotine (and other chemicals) that can then be inhaled into the lungs, but the tobacco doesn’t get hot enough to burn. These devices are not the same as e-cigarettes (see below). other tobacco products, heated tobacco products give off nicotine and other harmful and potentially harmful chemicals.

Although the levels of these chemicals are generally lower than in the smoke from regular cigarettes, this doesn’t mean these products are completely safe.

On average, smokeless tobacco products kill fewer people than cigarettes. But while they're often promoted as a less harmful alternative to smoking, some types have still been linked with cancer. Some products may expose users to lower levels of harmful chemicals than regular cigarettes, but this doesn’t mean they are safe.

No smokeless tobacco product has been proven to help people who smoke quit.

To learn more, see Health Risks of Smokeless Tobacco.

E-cigarettes and similar devices

E-cigarettes and other electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) have become very popular in recent years, especially among younger people. They are sometimes used as substitutes for cigarettes or other tobacco products, but for many people, they are the first tobacco product used.

Makers of e-cigarettes and other ENDS often claim the ingredients are safe. But the aerosols (mixtures of very small particles) that these products produce can contain addictive nicotine, flavorings, and a variety of other chemicals, some known to be toxic or to cause cancer.

The levels of many of these substances appear to be lower than in traditional cigarettes, but the amounts of nicotine and other substances in these products can vary widely because they are not standardized. The long-term health effects of these devices aren't yet known.

 

To learn more, see What Do We Know About E-cigarettes?

Источник: https://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancer-causes/tobacco-and-cancer/carcinogens-found-in-tobacco-products.html

Chemicals in Tobacco Products and Your Health

How Arsenic in Cigarette Smoke Hurts Your Health

You probably know that cigarette smoking kills you.

You probably know that cigarettes contain chemicals—a mix of over 7,000 chemicals, in fact—that can cause diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and COPD.

1 You may not know that other tobacco products, e-cigarettes, hookah, and smokeless tobacco, contain some of the same chemicals as cigarettes. What are these chemicals, and how might they affect your health? 

Nicotine: The Addictive Chemical in Tobacco

Nicotine is a highly addictive chemical found in the tobacco plant itself and is therefore present in all tobacco products.

While nicotine is what addicts and keeps people using tobacco products, it is not what makes tobacco use so deadly. Tobacco and tobacco smoke contain thousands of chemicals.

This mix of chemicals—not nicotine—is what causes serious disease and death in tobacco users.2

Chemicals in Cigarettes: How Do They Get There?

You may believe that cigarettes are so deadly because chemicals are added to them in the manufacturing process. While some chemicals are added during this process, some chemicals in cigarettes—along with nicotine—are found in the tobacco plant itself.

As the tobacco plant grows, it absorbs chemicals— cadmium, lead, and nitrates—from the soil and fertilizer.3,4 Cadmium is a carcinogen and is also found in batteries, while lead is a chemical that was once used in house paint. Cadmium and lead are both toxic metals.

1 When the plant is harvested for manufacturing, these chemicals are present in the tobacco leaves. 

As the tobacco leaves are cured, dangerous chemicals can form. These chemicals, called tobacco-specific nitrosamines, (TSNAs), remain in the tobacco leaves after the curing process.

4,5,6 During manufacturing, ammonia—a chemical found in household cleaning products—along with other chemicals may be added to increase nicotine absorption.4,7 Sugar and flavor additives may also be added during this stage to mask the harshness of smoke.

These additives form cancer-causing chemicals when they are burned.4,7,8  

Once a cigarette is lit, still more chemicals are formed in the burning process that weren’t present in the growing and manufacturing stages. These chemicals are then inhaled by smokers or those exposed to secondhand smoke. Lastly, dangerous chemicals that are detrimental to human health, wildlife, and water supplies can be released from cigarette butt waste into the environment.9

Hookah

In addition to nicotine, other tobacco products, hookah, contain some of the same chemicals as cigarettes.

Carbon monoxide, metals, and carcinogens can be found in hookah smoke, and hookah users are at risk for some of the same health effects as smokers as a result of these chemicals.

10,11 Research shows that hookah smokers may absorb even more of the toxic chemicals found in cigarette smoke because of the length of hookah smoking sessions.11  A typical 1-hour hookah session can produce as much smoke as several packs of cigarettes.

Smokeless Tobacco

Smokeless tobacco, although not combustible, contains a mix of 4,000 chemicals, including as many as 30 or more that are linked to cancer.12

These chemicals include heavy metals cadmium, lead, and nickel; as well as arsenic, a chemical used in insecticides; formaldehyde, which is used in embalming fluid; and N-Nitrosonornicotine (NNN), among others.13 NNN is known to cause cancer in animals and has been linked to an increase in the risk of cancer among humans.14,15  

About 1,300 people in the U.S. are diagnosed with oral cancer each year because of  smokeless tobacco use. Smokeless tobacco use also causes esophageal and pancreatic cancer.16-21 

E-cigarettes

As e-cigarettes have only recently come under FDA’s regulatory authority, their effects on individual and population health are still being studied.

Preliminary studies suggest switching completely to e-cigarettes could be less harmful than combustible cigarettes for adults who already have a nicotine addiction.22 Most e-cigarettes contain nicotine, the same highly addictive chemical in cigarettes that keeps people smoking even when they want to quit.

Other chemicals found in cigarette smoke, formaldehyde, acrolein, and acetaldehyde, are also found in some e-cigarette aerosols. These chemicals can cause irreversible lung damage at certain concentration.22-26   E-cigarettes can also contain flavorings such as diacetyl and acetoin.

Diacetyl and acetoin are considered safe to eat but inhaling them can be harmful to the lungs.27 More research is needed to determine the levels at which these chemicals are present in e-cigarette aerosols.

Tobacco-Free: The Best Option for Health

Because all tobacco products contain the addictive chemical nicotine, no tobacco product can be considered safe.  Using no tobacco products whatsoever is the best way to safeguard your health.  But if you are an adult with an established addiction, cessation will help protect you from the chemicals in tobacco products and tobacco smoke.

Quitting smoking is often difficult, and may take multiple attempts,28 but the longer a smoker is able to stay quit, the more of a chance the body gets to heal from the damage done from chemicals. Nicotine replacement therapies (NRTs) can be effective for cessation and can double your chances of quitting successfully.

29 Although nicotine is an addictive chemical, it does not carry the same risks as some of the other chemicals found in tobacco products. Many FDA-approved NRTs, including gum, patches, and lozenges, are available without a prescription, and may be used in combination with each other.

30 If you are an adult smoker and you are looking to quit, it is a good idea to talk to your doctor about your options.

FDA’s HPHC List

The chemicals and chemical compounds found in tobacco products or tobacco smoke that could cause harm to both smokers or, secondhand to nonsmokers, are called harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs).

Manufacturers and importers are required to report the levels of HPHCs in their products to FDA.

If you would to learn more about HPHCs found in tobacco products and tobacco smoke, a preliminary list of 93 HPHCs linked to cancer, cardiovascular disease, respiratory conditions, reproductive problems, and addiction can be found here.

References

1. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS). A Report of the Surgeon General: How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease: What It Means to You (Consumer Booklet). Atlanta, GA: U.S.

Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 2010.2. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS). The Health Consequences of Smoking—50 Years of Progress: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: U.S.

Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 2014.3. Stephens WE, Calder A, Newton J. Source and health implications of high toxic metal concentrations in illicit tobacco products. Environmental Science & Technology. 2005; 39(2):479-488.4.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS). How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease: The Biology and Behavioral Basis for Smoking-Attributable Disease: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: U.S.

Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 2010.5. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Smokeless Tobacco and Some Tobacco-Specific N-Nitrosamines. Lyon, France.

World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2007.6. Cancer Research UK. Source of the chemicals in cigarettes. http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/cancer-info/healthyliving/smokingandtobacco/whatsinacigarette/wheredothesechemicalscomefrom. 2009. Accessed August 18, 2014.7. Rabinoff M, Caskey N, Rissling A, Park C.

Pharmacological and chemical effects of cigarette additives. American Journal of Public Health. 2007;97(11):1981-1991.8. Talhout R, Opperhuizen A, Van Amsterdam JG. Sugars as tobacco ingredient: Effects on mainstream smoke composition. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2006;44(11), 1789-1798.9. Novotny TE, Slaughter E.

Tobacco product waste: an environmental approach to reduce tobacco consumption. Current Environmental Health Reports. 2014; 1(3):208-216.10. World Health Organization Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation (WHO TobReg). Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking: Health Effects, Research Needs and Recommended Actions by Regulators. Advisory Note, 2005.11.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Smoking & Tobacco Use: Hookahs (Fact Sheet). http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/tobacco_industry/hookahs/. Updated December 17, 2013. Accessed August 18, 2014.12. National Cancer Institute (NCI), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Smokeless Tobacco and Public Health: A Global Perspective.

Bethesda, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute. NIH Publication No. 14-7983; 2014.13. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Harmful and potentially harmful constituents in tobacco products and tobacco smoke: established list. Federal Register.

2012; 77(64): 20034-20037.14. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Smokeless Tobacco and Some Tobacco-Specific N-Nitrosamines. Lyon, France: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2007.15. Yuan JM, Knezevich AD, Wang R, Gao YT, Hecht SS, Stepanov I.

Urinary levels of the tobacco-specific carcinogen N'-nitrosonornicotine and its glucuronide are strongly associated with esophageal cancer risk in smokers. Carcinogenesis. 2011; 32(9):1366-71.16. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Tobacco Product Standard for N-Nitrosonornicotine Level in Finished Smokeless Tobacco. Federal Register. 2017; 82(3): 8004-8053.17. U.S.

Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS). The Health Consequences of Using Smokeless Tobacco—A Report of the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General. Bethesda, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Health, 1986.18. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Smokeless Tobacco and Some Tobacco-Specific N-Nitrosamines.

Lyon, France. World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2007.19. European Commission, Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR). Health Effects of Smokeless Tobacco Products. Brussels, Belgium. European Commission; 2008.20. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).

Personal Habits and Indoor Combustions: A Review of Human Carcinogens. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Vol. 100E. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2012.21. National Cancer Institute (NCI), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Smokeless Tobacco and Public Health: A Global Perspective. Bethesda, MD: U.S.

Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute. NIH Publication No. 14-7983; 2014.22. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Public Health Consequences of E-Cigarettes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.23.

Goniewicz ML, Knysak J, Gawron M, et al. Levels of selected carcinogens and toxicants in vapour from electronic cigarettes. Tobacco Control. 2014; 23(2):133-139.24. Cheng T. Chemical evaluation of electronic cigarettes. Tobacco Control. 2014; 23:ii11–ii17.25. Bein K, Leikauf GD. Acrolein–a pulmonary hazard. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research. 2011;55(9):1342-1360.26.

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Occupational Safety and Health Standards. Medical surveillance – Formaldehyde. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration. https://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=STANDARDS&p_id=10078. Accessed May 8, 2018.27. Allen J, Flanigan SS, LeBlanc M, et al.

Flavoring chemicals in e-cigarettes: Diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, and acetoin in a sample of 51 products, including fruit-, candy-, cocktail- flavored e-cigarettes. Environ Health Perspect. 2016;124. https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/15-10185/. Accessed March 27, 2018.28. Silagy C, Lancaster T, Stead L, Mant D, Fowler G. Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation (Review). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2004, Issue 3.29. Hartmann-Boyce J, Chepkin SC, Ye W, Bullen C, Lancaster T. Nicotine replacement therapy versus control for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2018, Issue 5.

30. Sweeney CT, Fant RV, Fagerstrom KO, McGovern JF, Henningfield JE. Combination nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation: rationale, efficacy and tolerability. CNS Drugs. 2001;15(6): 453–467.

Источник: https://www.fda.gov/tobacco-products/health-effects-tobacco-use/chemicals-tobacco-products-and-your-health

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