History and Key Concepts of Behavioral Psychology


History and Key Concepts of Behavioral Psychology

Behaviorism emerged early in the 20th century and became a major force in American psychology. Championed by psychologists such as John B. Watson (1878–1958) and B. F. Skinner (1904–1990), behaviorism rejected any reference to mind and viewed overt and observable behavior as the proper subject matter of psychology.

For decades, behaviorism dominated American psychology. By the 1960s, psychologists began to recognize that behaviorism was unable to fully explain human behavior because it neglected mental processes.

Behaviorism, also known as behavioral psychology, is a theory of learning the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning.

Conditioning occurs through interaction with the environment. Behaviorists believe that our responses to environmental stimuli shape our action.

 Behavior can be studied in a systematic and observable manner regardless of internal mental states.

There are two major types of conditioning:

  1. Classical Conditioning is a technique frequently used in behavioral training in which a neutral stimulus is paired with a naturally occurring stimulus. Eventually, the neutral stimulus comes to evoke the same response as the naturally occurring stimulus, even without the naturally occurring stimulus presenting itself. The associated stimulus is now known as the conditioned stimulus and the learned behavior is known as the conditioned response. There is also unconditioned response caused by unconditioned stimulus involuntarily. Sometimes Conditioned response and Unconditioned response are claimed to be similar.

Learning can occur through associations. The classical conditioning process works by developing an association between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus.

In physiologist Ivan Pavlov’s classic experiments, dogs associated the presentation of food (something that naturally and automatically triggers a salivation response) with the sound of a bell, at first, and then the sight of a lab assistant’s white coat.

Eventually, the lab coat alone elicited a salivation response from the dogs

Different factors can influence the classical conditioning process. During the first part of the classical conditioning process, known as acquisitions, a response is established and strengthened. Factors such as the prominence of the stimuli and the timing of presentation can play an important role in how quickly an association is formed.

When an association disappears, this is known as extinction, causing the behavior to weaken gradually or vanish. Factors such as the strength of the original response can play a role in how quickly extinction occurs. The longer a response has been conditioned, for example, the longer it may take for it to become extinct.

Factors generalization is common where we elaborate our new information and relate them with our existing information. These actions are performed by us on regular basis where we make resemblance and thus are able to store in our brain for longer period of time. We generally make common mistakes while generalizing.

Motivated Forgetting refers to the memories and experiences we want to forget because of their negative impact on our brain and behavior functioning. This mostly takes place when remembering of some traumatic makes catching up with new things harder.

2.  Operant Conditioning is a method of learning that occurs through reinforcements and punishments.

 Edward Throndike, a pioneering psychologist who described the law of effect, he talked about association between a behavior and a consequence for behavior.

When a desirable result follows an action, the behavior becomes more ly to occur again in the future. Responses followed by adverse outcomes, on the other hand, become less ly to happen again in the future.

Learning can also occur through rewards and punishments. Behaviorist B.F. Skinner described operant conditioning as the process in which learning can occur through reinforcement and punishment.

More specifically, by forming an association between a certain behavior and the consequences of that behavior, you learn. For example, if a parent rewards their child with praise every time they pick up their toys, the desired behavior is consistently reinforced.

As a result, the child will become more ly to clean up messes.

Reinforcement schedules are important in operant conditioning. This process seems fairly straight forward—simply observe a behavior and then offer a reward or punishment.

However, Skinner discovered that the timing of these rewards and punishments has an important influence on how quickly a new behavior is acquired and the strength of the corresponding response.

3. Observational Learning is a also a prominent part of behavioral psychology. Founded by Albert Bandura had had many arguments against his theory of learning by imitation of model through several steps that also contribute to change in our psychological behavior.

Factors That Influence Observational Learning

According to Bandura’s research, there are a number of factors that increase the lihood that a behavior will be imitated.

We are more ly to imitate:

  • People we perceive as warm and nurturing​.
  • People who receive rewards for their behavior​.
  • When you have been rewarded for imitating the behavior in the past​.
  • When we lack confidence in our own knowledge or abilities​.
  • People who are in an authoritative position over our lives​.
  • People who are similar to us in age, sex, and interests​.
  • People who we admire or who are of a higher social status​.
  • When the situation is confusing, ambiguous, or unfamiliar.

Observational theory has real world impacts on people especially  kids who lack theory of mind. Effects of adaptations through imitations from virtual world around us have more dangerous than helpful impacts on society.  They encourage more violence, aggression, depression, bluntness etc versus kindness, generosity, helpfulness and others.

           Strengths and Weakness of Behavioral Psychology

  • Behavioral psychology has some strengths. Behaviorism is observable behaviors, so it is sometimes easier to quantify and collect data when conducting research. Effective therapeutic techniques such as intensive behavioral intervention, behavior analysis, token economies, and discrete trial training are all rooted in behaviorism. These approaches are often very useful in changing maladaptive or harmful behaviors in both children and adults.
  • It also has some weaknesses. Many critics argue that behaviorism is a one-dimensional approach to understanding human behavior. They suggest that behavioral theories do not account for free will and internal influences such as moods, thoughts, and feelings. Also, it does not account for other types of learning that occurs without the use of reinforcement and punishments. Moreover, people and animals can adapt their behavior when new information is introduced even if that behavior was established through reinforcement.

Источник: http://sites.gsu.edu/zbhatt1/behavioral/

6.2 A Short History of Behaviorism

History and Key Concepts of Behavioral Psychology

By the end of this section, you will be able to:

  • Trace the chronological development of the psychological school of behaviorism
  • Develop an understanding of major themes pertaining to behaviorism
  • Recognize important contributors to behavioral learning theory

   Behaviorism dominated experimental psychology for several decades, and its influence can still be felt today. Behaviorism is largely responsible for establishing psychology as a scientific discipline through its objective methods and especially experimentation.

Early work in the field of behavior was conducted by the Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov (1849–1936).

Pavlov studied a form of learning behavior called a conditioned reflex, in which an animal or human produced a reflex (unconscious) response to a stimulus and, over time, was conditioned to produce the response to a different stimulus that the experimenter associated with the original stimulus. The reflex Pavlov worked with was salivation in response to the presence of food. The salivation reflex could be elicited using a second stimulus, such as a specific sound, that was presented in association with the initial food stimulus several times. Once the response to the second stimulus was “learned,” the food stimulus could be omitted. Pavlov’s “classical conditioning” is only one form of learning behavior studied by behaviorists.

  Edward Thorndike’s (1898) work with cats and puzzle boxes illustrates the concept of conditioning. The puzzle boxes were approximately 50 cm long, 38 cm wide, and 30 cm tall (see figure below).

Thorndike’s puzzle boxes were built so that the cat, placed inside the box, could escape only if it pressed a bar or pulled a lever, which caused the string attached to the door to lift the weight and open the door. Thorndike measured the time it took the cat to perform the required response (e.g.

, pulling the lever). Once it had learned the response he gave the cat a reward, usually food.

Thorndike found that once a cat accidentally stepped on the switch, it would then press the switch faster in each succeeding trial inside the puzzle box. By observing and recording how long it took a variety of animals to escape through several trials, Thorndike was able to graph the learning curve (graphed as an S-shape).

He observed that most animals had difficulty escaping at first, then began to escape faster and faster with each successive puzzle box trial, and eventually levelled off in their escape times. The learning curve also suggested that different species learned in the same way but at different speeds.

His finding was that cats, for instance, consistently showed gradual learning.

From his research with puzzle boxes, Thorndike was able to create his own theory of learning (1932).

“Thorndike’s Puzzle Box” by Jacob Sussman is available through Public Domain“

Of the manifold parts of his theory, Thorndike’s Law of Effect remains one of the theories’ most well-known corollaries.

Law of Effect: If an association is followed by satisfaction, it will be strengthened, and if it is followed by annoyance, it will be weakened.

That is, Thorndike believed that an organism would seek to strengthen the association between a stimulus and response, if that association was perceived to yield satisfaction or pleasure to that organism. Conversely, an organism would seek to weaken an association between a stimulus and response if it brought annoyance.

Consider a hungry mouse that is rewarded for pressing a lever with food. The association between the lever press and the food will be strengthened if the reward is perceived to be pleasurable, which to the hungry mouse, is sure to find the reward highly agreeable.

However, if the same mouse received an electric shock after pressing the lever, the mouse may choose to avoid the lever in future trials. If the stimulus is not elicited (lever press), there will be no response – the mouse weakens the association between lever press and the electric shock.

The law of effect later was replaced by terminology coined by later behaviorists, preferring the terms “reinforcement” and “punishment” over “satisfaction” and “annoyance”.

John B. Watson (1878–1958) was an influential American psychologist whose most famous work occurred during the early 20th century at Johns Hopkins University.

While Wundt and James were concerned with understanding conscious experience, Watson thought that the study of consciousness was flawed. Because he believed that objective analysis of the mind was impossible, Watson preferred to focus directly on observable behavior and try to bring that behavior under control.

Watson was a major proponent of shifting the focus of psychology from the mind to behavior, and this approach of observing and controlling behavior came to be known as behaviorism. A major object of study by behaviorists was learned behavior and its interaction with inborn qualities of the organism.

Behaviorism commonly used animals in experiments under the assumption that what was learned using animal models could, to some degree, be applied to human behavior.

Indeed, Tolman (1938) stated, “I believe that everything important in psychology (except … such matters as involving society and words) can be investigated in essence through the continued experimental and theoretical analysis of the determiners of rat behavior at a choice-point in a maze.”

Burrhus Frederic (B.F.) Skinner (1904–1990) was an American psychologist. Watson, Skinner was a behaviorist, and he concentrated on how behavior was affected by its consequences. B.F. Skinner called his particular brand of behaviorism radical behaviourism (1974).

Radical behaviorism is the philosophy of the science of behaviour. It seeks to understand behaviour as a function of environmental histories of reinforcing consequences.

This applied behaviourism does not accept private events such as thinking, perceptions, and unobservable emotions in a causal account of an organism’s behaviour.

While a researcher at Harvard, Skinner invented the operant conditioning chamber, popularly referred to as the Skinner box (see figure below), used to measure responses of organisms (most often rats and pigeons) and their orderly interactions with the environment.

The box had a lever and a food tray, and a hungry rat inside the box could get food delivered to the tray by pressing the lever.

Skinner observed that when a rat was first put into the box, it would wander around, sniffing and exploring, and would usually press the bar by accident, at which point a food pellet would drop into the tray.

After that happened, the rate of bar pressing would increase dramatically and remain high until the rat was no longer hungry. The Skinner Box has remained a crucial resource for researchers studying behavior (Thorne & Henley, 2005). Research conducted with the Skinner Box led to the principle of reinforcement, which is the probability of something occurring the consequences of a behavior.

A picture of an Operant Conditioning Chamber or Skinner Box. This device allowed experimenters to study conditioning principles and understand reward/punishment mechanisms in psychological research.


The Law of Effect and the Principle of Reinforcement are among the many insights that survive the school of behaviorism today. Nevertheless, we feel the influence of decades of behavioral research in various modern-day settings.

For example, behavioral principles are commonly applied in behavioral and cognitive-behavioral therapy to create powerful changes in one’s behavior. Behavior modification is also commonly used in classroom settings to encourage appropriate classroom behaviors and discourage potential disruptions.

Overall, behaviorism has led to research on environmental influences on human behavior.


Introduction to Psychology text by [redacted author(s)] is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA. http://open.umn.edu/opentextbooks/BookDetail.aspx?bookId=48

Introduction to Psychology – 1st Canadian Ed. by Jennifer Walinga is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA. http://open.umn.edu/opentextbooks/BookDetail.aspx?bookId=427

Openstax Psychology text by Kathryn Dumper, William Jenkins, Arlene Lacombe, Marilyn Lovett and Marion Perlmutter is licensed under CC BY v4.0. https://openstax.org/details/books/psychology

Introduction to Psychology: The Full Noba Collection by Robert Biswas-Diener and Ed Diener is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA. http://open.umn.edu/opentextbooks/BookDetail.aspx?bookId=228

Review Questions:

1. The results of Thorndike’s Puzzle Box experiments demonstrated that the test animals took ____ time (relative to all attempts) initially when solving puzzle box trials and took ____ time with each subsequent, completed trial.

a. Less; More

b. Less; Less

c. More; Less

d. More; More

2. Thorndike’s Law of Effect is differentiated from the Principle of Reinforcement because the ____ posits that ____.

a. Law of effect; organisms will initiate actions which will yield a pleasurable effect

b. Law of effect; organisms will initiate actions that impede the presence of an non-pleasurable effect

c. Principle of Reinforcement; an organism is more ly to pursue behaviors which are reinforced

d. Principle of Reinforcement; an organism is less ly to pursue behaviors which are not reinforced

e. None of the above.

3. One of the main tenets of Skinner’s radical behaviorism was that___

a. the activities of the mind, apart from the operation of basic life-sustaining functions, had a causal influence on an organisms’ behavior

b. an organism’s perception is integral to guiding that organism’s behaviors

c. an organism’s emotional capacities is among the primary influences for the initiation of behavior

d. a combination of an organism’s thinking, perception and related emotional activities initiate behaviors

e. the private events of the human mind had no causal role pertaining to an organism’s behavior.

Critical Thinking Questions:

1. What are some of the weaknesses of radical behaviorism as it was conceptualized by B.F. Skinner?

Personal Application Question: 

1. What are some ways you can potentially see the application of behavioral principles (e.g., the law of effect, principle of reinforcement) in your everyday life?


conditioned reflex: an animal or human produced a reflex (unconscious) response to a stimulus.

classical conditioning: (briefly) a type of conditioning in which a natural, unconditioned stimulus (e.g., food) is paired with a novel stimulus (e.g., a sound, a bell) to create a circumstance in which the novel stimulus can produce a desired response.

law of effect: the precursor to the principle of reinforcement, this law describes the actions of an organism following a satisfying or dissatisfying outcome.

radical behaviorism: a philosophy in the science of behavior. Radical behaviorism seeks to understand behavior as a function of environmental histories of reinforcing consequences while simultaneously rejecting the role of thinking, perception or emotion in the initiation or maintenance of behaviors.

Skinner Box: an apparatus used to measure responses of organisms (most often rats and pigeons) and their orderly interactions with the environment.

Review Questions:

1. C

2. E (The Law of effect was effectively co-opted into the principle of reinforcement for the sake of providing more easily testable experimental conditions)

3. E

Critical Thinking Questions:

1. Answer: (should contain some of the following key points)

*not all human processes characterizing human behaviors have easily recognizable conditioned stimuli, and the behaviors that can be considered conditioned are not easily traceable to a single source

*modern empirical research has mostly refuted the assumption that “private events” do not influence behaviors (e.g., cognitive psychological treatment, phantom limb research)

*private events are constants which underlie ALL behavior, voluntary or involuntary – to rule them out simply because they are not observable is in essence, jumping to conclusions


conditioned reflex: an animal or human produced a reflex (unconscious) response to a stimulus.

classical conditioning: (briefly) a type of conditioning in which a natural, unconditioned stimulus (e.g., food) is paired with a novel stimulus (e.g., a sound, a bell) to create a circumstance in which the novel stimulus can produce a desired response.

law of effect: the precursor to the principle of reinforcement, this law describes the actions of an organism following a satisfying or dissatisfying outcome.

radical behaviorism: a philosophy in the science of behavior. Radical behaviorism seeks to understand behavior as a function of environmental histories of reinforcing consequences while simultaneously rejecting the role of thinking, perception or emotion in the initiation or maintenance of behaviors.

Skinner Box: an apparatus used to measure responses of organisms (most often rats and pigeons) and their orderly interactions with the environment.

Источник: https://opentext.wsu.edu/psych105/chapter/6-2-a-short-history-of-learning-and-behaviorism/

An Introduction to Behavioral Psychology — Rivier Academics

History and Key Concepts of Behavioral Psychology
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Behavioral psychology, or behaviorism, is a theory suggesting that environment shapes human behavior. In a most basic sense, behavioral psychology is the study and analysis of observable behavior.

This field of psychology influenced thought heavily throughout the middle of the 20th century. It is still used by mental health professionals today, as its concepts and theories remain relevant in fields psychotherapy and education.

A Brief History

Psychologist John B. Watson started behavioral psychology by building off the work of Russian psychologist Ivan Pavlov. In what’s known as classical conditioning, Pavlov found that certain objects or events could trigger a response. His famous experiments with dogs demonstrated that the presence of a bowl of dog food (stimulus) would trigger an unconditioned response (salivation).

If Pavlov could pair a stimulus to obtain a new conditioned response, those implications in learning could be applied to other facets of human behavior.

For instance, perhaps conditioning and environment could understand how and why people learn, act and think. The earliest believed conditioning explained all learning and behavioral responses.

That view refers to strict or radical behaviorism, which is now largely rejected.

“Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own special world to bring them up in and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select – doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief, and yes, beggarman and thief.”– John B. Watson, Behaviorism

In addition to Watson, other psychologists helped shape behavioral psychology into what it is today. Edward Thorndike introduced the law of effect, which refers to how satisfying responses are more ly to occur again in the future.

He was the first to integrate that and other scientific principles into learning theory. Another thinker in behavioral psychology, Clark Hull, pioneered drive theory.

As organisms suffer deprivation, it creates certain needs in drives in people that directly impact behavior.

Techniques from Behavioral Psychology

Several concepts in behaviorism are utilized in therapy.

  • Systematic desensitization is used for clients who have a specific phobia, which is characterized by marked fear or anxiety about an object or situation, an animal or airplanes. Therapy involves applying relaxation or coping techniques as people are gradually exposed to the object or situation.
  • Exposure and response prevention is a strategy that involves exposure to fearful situations, and then not engaging in unhelpful coping strategies. This therapeutic technique is used for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and other types of anxiety disorders.
  • Token economy reinforces target behavior by giving children and adults symbols or tokens that can be exchanged for something else. It can be used for people with a wide range of mental health issues, as well as in educational settings.
  • Modeling involves clients learning behavior by imitation alone. It’s used in developmental psychology and can be incorporated into clinical use.
  • Applied behavior analysis emerged in the 1960s as a way to modify behavior. It is commonly used for children with an autism spectrum disorder, and is also relevant to fields education, industrial safety, and criminal behavior.
  • Contingency management involves individuals receiving vouchers for retail goods and services, or the opportunity to win prizes. Often used for patients with substance abuse or related disorders, it typically takes the form of monetary-based reinforcers for drug-negative tests, according to The Psychiatrist.

Working in Behavioral Psychology

There are several opportunities for integrating behavioral psychology into practice. For instance, many psychologists research topics conditioning to examine the nature of human behavior. Often, they are able to apply findings to mental health disorders.

Behavioral psychology has had a major impact in clinical applications. For instance, mental health counselors, substance abuse counselors, and other professionals use therapeutic techniques from behaviorism to help people overcome specific issues. Even newer fields, applied behavior analysis, have emerged by adapting concepts from behavioral psychology.

The foundation to all those careers is an undergraduate degree in psychology. You can start your journey to becoming a psychologist, mental health counselor, applied behavior analyst and more with an online bachelor’s in psychology from Rivier University. Gain the knowledge and skills needed to open up several career paths upon graduation.

Study in a fully online learning environment, which allows you to complete your education and maintain your current work and personal schedule.

Multiple term starts, a generous transfer credit policy, and competitive tuition rates are all designed to help you start, and finish, faster.

 Rivier University has been educating students to transform the world for more than 80 years, so you can trust you will receive a high-quality education in a format designed to help you succeed.

Источник: https://www.rivier.edu/academics/blog-posts/an-introduction-to-behavioral-psychology/

What is Behavioral Psychology?

History and Key Concepts of Behavioral Psychology

Behavioral psychology is the study of how our behaviors relate to our mind – it looks at our behavior through the lens of psychology and draws a link between the two.

Understanding why we act in certain ways has always been a central task for psychologists, who have attempted to peer into the mind and brain to uncover what lies behind. While modern research often uses neuroimaging methods to find data that demonstrates the link between the brain and actions, behavioral psychology has its own roots in a time before such methods were commonplace.

But how did it all come together, and what does the theory really look ?

The origins of behavioral psychology

The origins of behavioral psychology start with John B. Watson in 1913, who proposed that psychologists should focus on the observable behavior of individuals, rather than the invisible, inner workings of their minds (a theory that stemmed from Freud).

Later on, B. F. Skinner developed this theory and showed evidence in favor of it – becoming one of the most important psychologists of the 20th century in the process. He theorized that all of human behavior was shaped by our environment, that we could be made to act in certain ways depending on the prior consequences of previous actions.

B. F. Skinner essentially proposed that positive consequences to prior actions would lead to an individual carrying out more of those actions, while negative consequences would lead to an individual completing those actions less.

He famously stated “Give me a child and I’ll shape him into anything” – a paraphrasing of his belief in the power of the environment to impact who we become. Behaviorism was essentially an argument entirely in favor of nurture, in the nature vs. nurture debate.

Behaviorism outlined

Behaviorism historically consists of two central components: operant and classical conditioning.

Operant conditioning – upon which most modern behaviorism is based – is defined as the shaping of future acts past rewards or punishments, and is largely the context that behavioral psychology places behavior in.

While a fairly simple concept, there is more to this than meets the eye. For example, positive punishment refers to the addition of negative consequences to behavior (e.g.

a child has to clean up their room for making it messy), while negative punishment refers to the removal of consequences in response to behavior (e.g.

the child doesn’t get any pocket money for making their room messy).

There is also negative reinforcement, and positive reinforcement. The latter, positive reinforcement, is what we would traditionally think of as a reward – something positive is gained from an action. Negative reinforcement refers to the aversion of something negative through actions (e.g. putting on sunscreen to avoid getting burnt).

Negative reinforcement can be split further into escape, and active avoidance. Escape refers to actions that get away from a negative stimulus, while active avoidance is preventative of encountering such a stimulus.

Classical conditioning is defined as the association of an conditioned stimulus (such as food), with a neutral stimulus (such as a bell). The neutral stimulus eventually becomes a conditioned stimulus (i.e. the bell becomes rewarding through association with food, even in the absence of food). The research by Pavlov was pivotal in the formation of behavioristic thinking.

Modern Behavioral Psychology

Behaviorism went on to become one of the leading psychology theories of the 20th century, and its principals still underlie a great deal of modern research into human behavior. While B. F.

Skinner’s radical approach has ultimately been found – with the emergence of fields cognitive psychology (which we discuss in a blog post here) – to be more nuanced, it inspired new ways of examining human behavior.

Modern Behavioral Psychology, or Behaviorism, continues to explore how our behavior can be shaped by reinforcement and punishments. For example, new eye tracking experiments can develop an understanding of how we learn through positive and negative feedback.

Eye trackers have been able to reveal how even such processes as the small movements of our eyes can be guided by positive and negative reinforcement [1, 2]. This has implications for research across a wide range of topics, from fundamental studies of learning, to driving practices.

Other studies have looked at how our looking behavior is guided by the potential reinforcing variables in our environment – in other words, we look where we expect to find something good [3].

Studies have also examined how our electrodermal (EDA / GSR) and heart rate activity can be affected by winning or losing in a gambling context [4], showing how the physiological reactions to both negative and positive stimuli (punishment and reward) can be captured.

This has the potential to allow researchers to understand gambling in a more systematic way. By using the framework of behavioral psychology, researchers can then make further predictions which will allow them to suggest potential treatment or deterrence pathways [5].

Other research has investigated the way in which GSR activity can help in the understanding of phobic responses in a therapeutic context [6], which can help progress an understanding of what does and does not work within therapy treatments.

All of the studies above have shown how biosensors can capture data that helps in the understanding of human behavior from the context of behavioral psychology.

Modern behavioral psychology can today use human behavior research methods to investigate further the link between brain and behavior. To learn more about behavioral psychology, and how researchers are developing a greater understanding of the processes that lead to our behavior, download our free guide to human behavior below.


[1] Land MF. Eye movements and the control of actions in everyday life. Progress Retin Eye Res. 2006;25:296–324. doi: 10.1016/j.preteyeres.2006.01.002. [2] Land, M., Furneaux, S. (1997). The knowledge base of the oculomotor system. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 352, 1231– 1239. [3] Sprague, N. Ballard, D. (2003). Eye movements for reward maximization. Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 16. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. [4] Lole L, Gonsalvez CJ, Blaszczynski A, Clarke AR. Electrodermal activity reliably captures physiological differences between wins and losses during gambling on electronic machines. Psychophysiology. 2012;49(2):154–163. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8986.2011.01290.x. [5] Ito, J. R., Donovan, D. M., & Hall, J. J. (1988). Relapse prevention in alcohol aftercare:Effects on drinking outcome, change process, and aftercare attendance. British Journal of Addiction, 83, 171–181 [6] Ohman, A., Fredrikson, M., Hugdahl, K., & Rimmo, P. A. (1976). The premise of equipotentiality in human classical conditioning: Conditioned electrodermal responses to potentially phobic stimuli. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 103, 313-337.[/fusion_builder_column][/fusion_builder_row][/fusion_builder_container]

Источник: https://imotions.com/blog/behavioral-psychology/

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