Developmental Psychology

Developmental Psychology Journal

Developmental Psychology

Eric F. Dubow
Bowling Green State University and the University of Michigan

Associate editors

Drew H. Bailey, PhD
University of California, Irvine, United States

Lynne E. Baker-Ward, PhD
North Carolina State University, United States

Christopher R. Beam, PhD
University of Southern California, United States

Paul Boxer, PhD
Rutgers University, United States

Daniel A. Briley, PhD
University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, United States

Cleopatra Howard Caldwell, PhD
University of Michigan, United States

Pamela M. Cole, PhD
The Pennsylvania State University, United States

Kathleen H. Corriveau, EdD
Boston University, United States

Alissa Ferry, PhD
University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom

Bert Hayslip, Jr., PhD
University of North Texas, United States

Ernest N. Jouriles, PhD
Southern Methodist University, United States

Elizabeth J. Kiel, PhD
Miami University, United States

Jennifer E. Lansford, PhD
Duke University, United States

Erika Lunkenheimer, PhD
The Pennsylvania State University, United States

Marjorie Rhodes, PhD
New York University, United States

Martin D. Ruck, PhD
The City University of New York, United States

Jessica E. Salvatore, PhD
Rutgers University, United States

Erik D. Thiessen, PhD
Carnegie Mellon University, United States

Wendy Troop-Gordon, PhD
Auburn University, United States

Tiffany Yip, PhD
Fordham University

Consulting editors

Nameera Akhtar, PhD
University of California, Santa Cruz, United States

Brian E. Armenta, PhD
University of Texas at San Antonio, United States

Shervin Assari, MD
Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science, United States

Melissa A. Barnett, PhD
University of Arizona, United States

Jay Belsky, PhD
University of California, Davis, United States

Maya Benish-Weisman, PhD
University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel

Elika Bergelson, PhD
Duke University, United States

Heidemarie Blumenthal, PhD
University of North Texas, United States

Amanda C. Brandone, PhD
Lehigh University, United States

David J. Bridgett, PhD
Northern Illinois University, United States

Rebecca J. Brooker, PhD
Texas A&M University, United States

Perrine Brusini, PhD
University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Lucas Payne Butler, PhD
University of Maryland, College Park, United States

Claire E. Cameron, PhD
University of Buffalo, United States

Nadia Chernyak, PhD
Boston College, United States

Jennifer M. Clegg, PhD
Texas State University, United States

Feyza Corapci, PhD
Bogazici University, Istanbul, Turkey

Sarah M. Coyne, PhD
Brigham Young University, United States

Michael M. Criss, PhD
Oklahoma State University, United States

Audun Dahl, PhD
University of California, Santa Cruz, United States

Judith H. Danovitch, PhD
University of Louisville, United States

Patrick T. Davies, PhD
University of Rochester, United States

Elizabeth L. Davis, PhD
University of California, Riverside, United States

Arielle R. Deutsch, PhD
Sanford Research and University of South Dakota, United States

Laura Di Giunta, PhD
Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy

Melanie A. Dirks, PhD
McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Leah D. Doane, PhD
Arizona State University, United States

Meagan Docherty, PhD
Arizona State University, United States

Natalie D. Eggum-Wilkens, PhD
Arizona State University, United States

Samuel E. Ehrenreich, PhD
University of Nevada, Reno, United States

Katherine B. Ehrlich, PhD
University of Georgia, United States

Lisa K. Fazio, PhD
Vanderbilt University, United States

Gregory M. Fosco, PhD
The Pennsylvania State University, United States

Wolfgang J. Friedlmeier, PhD
Grand Valley State University, United States

Jody M. Ganiban, PhD
George Washington University, United States

Anna Gassman-Pines, PhD
Duke University, United States

Noni K. Gaylord-Harden, PhD
Loyola University Chicago, United States

Dylan Gee, PhD
Yale University, United States

Sara E. Goldstein, PhD
Montclair State University, United States

John Grych, PhD
Marquette University, United States

Robert Guttentag, PhD
University of North Carolina Greensboro, United States

Heather A. Henderson, PhD
University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada

Ernest V. E. Hodges, PhD
St. John's University, United States

Kevin A. Hoff, PhD
University of Houston, United States

Justin Jager, PhD
Arizona State University, United States

Jade Marcus Jenkins
University of California, Irvine, United States

Jamie Jirout, PhD
University of Virginia, United States

Philipp Jugert, PhD
University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany

Peggy S. Keller, PhD
University of Kentucky, United States

Melissa M. Kibbe, PhD
Boston University, United States

Melanie Killen, PhD
University of Maryland, College Park, United States

Katherine D. Kinzler, PhD
Cornell University, United States

Theo A. Klimstra, PhD
Tilburg University, Tilburg, The Netherlands

Chrystyna D. Kouros, PhD
Southern Methodist University, United States

Jonathan D. Lane, PhD
Vanderbilt University, United States

Tessa A.M. Lansu, PhD
Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands

Antti Latvala, PhD
University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

Daniel B. Lee, PhD
University of Michigan, United States

Elizabeth A. Lemerise, PhD
Western Kentucky University, United States

Kathryn Lemery-Chalfant, PhD
Arizona State University, United States

Casey Lew-Williams, PhD
Princeton University, United States

James J. Li, PhD
University of Wisconsin–Madison, United States

Zoe Liberman, PhD
University of California, Santa Barbara, United States

Eric W. Lindsey, PhD
Pennsylvania State University, Berks Campus, United States

Andrew K. Littlefield, PhD
Texas Tech University, United States

Sabina Low, PhD
Arizona State University, United States

Robert J. Maiden, PhD
Alfred University, United States

Candice M. Mills
The University of Texas at Dallas, United States

Kelly Lynn Mulvey, PhD
University of South Carolina, United States

Dianna Murray-Close, PhD
University of Vermont, United States

Kimberly T. Nesbitt, PhD
University of New Hampshire, United States

Erika Y. Niwa, PhD
Brooklyn College, The City University of New York, United States

Robert L. Nix, PhD
University of Wisconsin–Madison, United States

Laura M. Padilla-Walker, PhD
Brigham Young University, United States

Kristin Pauker, PhD
University of Hawaii at Manoa, United States

Koraly Pérez-Edgar, PhD
The Pennsylvania State University, United States

Eva M. Pomerantz, PhD
University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, United States

Wizdom A. Powell, PhD
University of Connecticut, United States

Naomi Priest, PhD
Australian National University, Canberra, Australia

Diane L. Putnick, PhD
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, United States

Niyantri Ravindran, PhD
Texas Tech University, United States

Sven Rieger, PhD
University of Tübingen, Germany

Claudia M. Roebers, PhD
University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland

Amy E. Root, PhD
West Virginia University, United States

Joshua Rottman, PhD
Franklin & Marshall College, United States

Adam Rutland, PhD
University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom

Eleanor K. Seaton, PhD
Arizona State University, United States

Andrew Shtulman, PhD
Occidental College, United States

Judith G. Smetana, PhD
University of Rochester, United States

Gregory C. Smith, EdD
Kent State University, United States

Harvey L. Sterns, PhD
The University of Akron, United States

Jinni Su, PhD
Arizona State University, United States

Michael J. Sulik, PhD
Stanford University, United States

Jessica Sullivan, PhD
Skidmore College, United States

Clarissa A. Thompson, PhD
Kent State University, United States

Lauree Tilton-Weaver, PhD
Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden

Kristin Valentino, PhD
University of Notre Dame, United States

Kristy vanMarle, PhD
University of Missouri–Columbia, United States

Tyler W. Watts, PhD
Teachers College, Columbia University, United States

Deena Skolnick Weisberg, PhD
University of Pennsylvania, United States

Sara J. Weston, PhD
University of Oregon, United States

Joanne Lee Williams, PhD.
University of Virginia, United States

Dawn Witherspoon, PhD
The Pennyslvania State University, United States

Laura Wray-Lake, PhD
University of California, Los Angeles, United States

Katharine H. Zeiders, PhD
University of Arizona, United States

Editorial manager

Deanna J. Maida
University of Michigan

Источник: https://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/dev

Developmental Psychology

Developmental Psychology

Developmental psychology, a broad area of study exploring the development of humans over time, involves the examination of the ways people develop over the course of their lifespan as well as the evolution of cultures as a whole. Those who work in the field of developmental psychology seek to better understand how people learn and adapt to changes over time. 

Developmental psychologists might work in schools, hospitals, or assisted living facilities, and they might also conduct research or teach in higher education or government institutes. People seeking therapy for issues related to development may also encounter helping professionals who have a background in developmental psychology.

Developmental Psychology Theories

People undergo many physical, cognitive, social, intellectual, and emotional changes throughout life, and it is these changes that developmental psychologists study. Developmental psychology theories tend to explain development in terms of a progression through life stages.

One such of these theories, Jean Piaget's theory of development, is considered to be the first stage theory, and Piaget himself is considered to be one of the most important figures in developmental psychology.

 Piaget believed all individuals passed through through the same four stages. In order to progress from one stage to the next, a person must meet the goals of the current stage.

This theory is used widely in school curriculums. 

  • The sensorimotor stage marks the first two years of life. In this stage, babies are learning about and experimenting with the physical world. Object permanence and language development are important goals in this stage. 
  • The preoperational stage typically lasts until about the age of 7. During this stage, children learn to use symbolic thinking to deepen their understanding of various concepts.
  • Children between the ages of 7 and 12 are usually in the concrete operational stage, where they are ly to demonstrate logic and increased reasoning.
  • The final stage, formal operational, typically begins around the age of 11 and lasts through adulthood. This stage is characterized by the understanding of abstract concepts.

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Erik Erikson, who was interested in both individual development (how a person develops a sense of self) as well as a person’s social/cultural identity (the roles played within one's family and in society), is another important figure in the field of developmental psychology. His stage theory is his belief that every individual passes through eight stages of development over the course of their life. 

  1. In the initial stage of trust vs. mistrust, infants with consistent and reliable caregivers typically gain a sense of trust and confidence. 
  2. During the stage of autonomy vs. shame (age 1-3), children typically develop new skills and begin to learn how to tell right from wrong. 
  3. The initiative vs. guilt stage (3-5) is characterized by mimicry of adults and exploration of the world through play. Conflict with parents is typically resolved through the process of social role identification. 
  4. The industry vs. inferiority stage (6-12), also known as the latency stage, is a highly social stage. Children who feel inadequate or inferior to their peers may develop self-esteem issues or struggle with competency. 
  5. Adolescents (12-18) begin to experience identity vs. role confusion. In this stage, their development begins to depend largely on their own actions as they begin to discover and express their identity. 
  6. In the intimacy vs. isolation stage (18-34), individuals typically begin to desire intimate relationships and lasting connections with friends and romantic partners. 
  7. Generativity vs. self-absorption (35-55/65) is most often marked by dedication to career, work, and family. Some individuals may find it difficult to maintain a sense of purpose during life transitions such as retirement or children moving out. 
  8. During the final stage of integrity vs. despair (55/65-end of life), people tend to reflect on life and begin to make peace with the idea of death. Some may develop a sense of integrity as they look back, but others may get «stuck» on certain experiences and failures and feel a sense of despair. 

Other relevant names in developmental psychology include Lev Vygotsky and Albert Bandura. Vygotsky is known for his social contextual theory, which posits that development begins on the social level when children learn from caregivers, teachers, and peers. Thus, the culture a person is born into has a significant effect on development. 

Bandura’s social learning theory, which is a more recent contribution to the field, suggests that people learn by witnessing the actions of others. This was demonstrated with what are known as the “Bobo doll experiments.

» Children who watched a person attack a blow-up doll were extremely ly to then attack the doll themselves without any incitement whatsoever.

This theory, which appeared to indicate that children would repeat behavior they saw performed by others, has had a significant impact on Western society and has been used to analyze criminal behavior. 

The Impact of Developmental Psychology

Developmental psychology is concerned with the many factors that influence human development. The question of nature vs. nurture has long been an important one in the field of psychology.

Most theorists agree that both biological and environmental factors influence how an individual develops, but there is still some disagreement over the contributions of each area.

Greater understanding of the various aspects of human development may give researchers a deeper understanding of issues such as these. 

Researchers also study whether development is a continuous process or one that occurs in a series of qualitatively different steps, whether development varies across cultures, and how different theories of development relate to build the most thorough explanation of human development possible. None of the theories attempting to explain development has been entirely accepted as completely explaining the developmental process. 

One particularly important aspect of developmental psychology that has been widely researched is cognitive development, or how people learn.

Behavioral theorists believe individuals are largely passive but are molded by environmental factors through operant and classical conditioning.

Social learning theory, on the the other hand, explores the models that people imitate, suggesting that people learn through watching and modeling their behavior after authority figures and other influential people in their lives.

Using Developmental Psychology in Treatment

Research in developmental psychology has provided an understanding of how people progress. More specifically, it aims to describe and address the basic milestones that are ly to occur at certain ages.

If an individual is not meeting a milestone at the expected time, a developmental psychologist can assess the situation and often develop intervention strategies to help people continue through the typical stages of development.  

Helping professionals versed in the concepts of developmental psychology may be able to help people in treatment increase their understanding of what to expect at any given point in life.

Erikson's theory of development, for example, describes the typical/expected outcomes and challenges that are ly to occur at each stage of development, and individuals who have knowledge of these stages may find it helpful to know what to expect when they, their children, or other family members are going through a life transition or important phase.    

Developmental psychology can also contribute to the understanding and treatment of developmental disabilities. 

Careers in Developmental Psychology

As a large field of study with a number of specialties, developmental psychology offers many different careers. Developmental psychologists typically begin pursuing a career in the field by earning a bachelor's degree in psychology, but most careers require an advanced degree such as a master's degree or doctorate.  

Some developmental psychologists might assess and treat people with developmental disabilities or delays. Developmental psychologists can also specialize in a certain area, such as infant development or gerontology. Depending on their area of specialty, developmental psychologists may work in schools and other learning centers, nursing homes, universities, or hospitals. 

Concerns and Limitations

Many of the concepts in developmental research have been extensively researched and are widely accepted.

The rigidity of the stages within stage theories, however, has been criticized, as stages that dictate transition at a particular age may not adequately account for individual differences.

Some children experiencing normal development may move to a new stage before they reach the minimum age of that stage, and others may be somewhat delayed. 

Developmental psychology has also been criticized for being too deterministic. Developmental psychologists believe early experiences have a significant impact on the formation of self and character, and this belief may somewhat downplay the roles of free will and choice.

Another point of consideration is that much of the research has been conducted using children. Because children may not adequately understand the experimental task, can become bored easily, and might be otherwise influenced while participating in a study, some people believe research results may not be an accurate reflection of what children are actually capable of doing.  

References:

  1. Child and developmental psychology careers. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://careersinpsychology.org/what-is-developmental-psychology
  2. Hetherington, E., & Parke, R. (2004). Child psychology: A contemporary viewpoint (5th ed.). McGraw-Hill. Retrieved from http://highered.mheducation.com/sites/0072820144/student_view0/chapter1/index.html​
  3. Developmental psychology. (n.d.). Psychologist World. Retrieved from https://www.psychologistworld.com/developmental/developmental-psychology.php
  4. Developmental psychology studies human development across the lifespan. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/action/science/developmental
  5. Erikson’s stages of development. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.learning-theories.com/eriksons-stages-of-development.html
  6. Masters, S. (2013, March 13). Evaluation of developmental approach. Retrieved from https://getrevising.co.uk/grids/evaluation_of_developmental_approach
  7. Shrof, A. (2015, July 7). Piaget stages of development. Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/children/piaget-stages-of-development#1
  8. Themes and theories of child development. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://highered.mheducation.com/sites/0072820144/student_view0/chapter1/index.html

Last Update:09-19-2016

Источник: https://www.goodtherapy.org/learn-about-therapy/types/developmental-psychology

Continuity vs. Discontinuity

Think about how children become adults. Isthere a predictable pattern they followregarding thought and language and socialdevelopment? Do children go through gradual changes or arethey abrupt changes?

Normative development is typically viewed as a continual and cumulative process. The continuity view says that changeis gradual. Children become more skillful inthinking, talking or acting much thesame way as they get taller.

The discontinuity view seesdevelopment as more abrupt-asuccession of changes thatproduce different behaviors indifferent age-specific life periodscalled stages. Biological changes provide the potential for these changes.

We often hear people talking about children going through“stages” in life (i.e. “sensorimotor stage.”). These are called developmental stages-periods of life initiated bydistinct transitions in physical or psychological functioning.

Psychologists of the discontinuity view believe that people gothrough the same stages, in the same order, but not necessarily atthe same rate.

Nature vs. Nurture

When trying to explain development, it is important to consider the relative contribution of both nature and nurture. Developmental psychology seeksto answer two big questionsabout heredity and environment:

  1. How much weight does each contribute?
  2. How do nature and nurture interact?

Nature refers to the process of biological maturation inheritance and maturation.

One of the reasons why the development of human beings is so similar is because our common specifies heredity (DNA) guides all of us through many of the same developmental changes at about the same points in our lives. Nurture refers to the impact of the environment, which involves the process of learning through experiences.

There are two effective ways tostudy nature-nurture.

  1. Twin studies: Identical twins havethe same genotype, and fraternaltwins have an average of 50% oftheir genes in common.
  2. Adoption studies: Similarities withthe biological family support nature,while similarities with the adoptivefamily support nurture.

Stability vs. Change

Stability implies personality traits present during infancy endure throughout the lifespan. In contrast, change theorists argue that personalities are modified by interactions with family, experiences at school, and acculturation.

This capacity for change is called plasticity. For example, Rutter (1981) discovered than somber babies living in understaffed orphanages often become cheerful and affectionate when placed in socially stimulating adoptive homes.

Historical Origins

Developmental psychology as a discipline did not exist until after the industrial revolution when the need for an educated workforce led to the social construction of childhood as a distinct stage in a person's life.

The notion of childhood originates in the Western world and this is why the early research derives from this location. Initially, developmental psychologists were interested in studying the mind of the child so that education and learning could be more effective.

Developmental changes during adulthood is an even more recent area of study. This is mainly due to advances in medical science, enabling people to live to old age.

Charles Darwin is credited with conducting the first systematic study of developmental psychology. In 1877 he published a short paper detailing the development of innate forms of communication scientific observations of his infant son, Doddy.

However, the emergence of developmental psychology as a specific discipline can be traced back to 1882 when Wilhelm Preyer (a German physiologist) published a book entitled The Mind of the Child.

In the book, Preyer describes the development of his own daughter from birth to two and a half years. Importantly, Preyer used rigorous scientific procedures throughout studying the many abilities of his daughter.

In 1888 Preyer's publication was translated into English, by which time developmental psychology as a discipline was fully established with a further 47 empirical studies from Europe, North America and Britain also published to facilitate the dissemination of knowledge in the field.

During the 1900s three key figures have dominated the field with their extensive theories of human development, namely Jean Piaget (1896-1980), Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) and John Bowlby (1907-1990). Indeed, much of the current research continues to be influenced by these three theorists.

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How to reference this article:

McLeod, S. A.(2017, Jan 14).Developmental psychology. Simply Psychology. www.simplypsychology.org/developmental-psychology.html

APA Style References

Baltes, P. B., Reese, H., & Lipsett, L. (1980) Lifespan developmental psychology, Annual Review of Pyschology 31: 65 – 110.

Darwin, C. (1877). A Biographical Sketch of an Infant. Mind, 2, 285-294.

Preyer, W.T. (1882). Die Seele des Kindes: Beobachtungen über die geistige Entwicklung des Menschen in den ersten Lebensjahren.Grieben, Leipzig,

Preyer, W.T. (1888). The soul of the child: observations on the mental development of man in the first years of life.

Rutter, M. (1981). STRESS, COPING AND DEVELOPMENT: SOME ISSUES AND SOME QUESTIONS*. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 22(4), 323-356.

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