Comparing COVID-19 Shot to Well Known Shots May Increase Vaccine Trust

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  1. COVID-19 Vaccines: Myth Versus Fact
  2. MYTH: The COVID-19 vaccine can affect women’s fertility
  3. MYTH: If I’ve already had COVID-19, I don’t need a vaccine
  4. MYTH: Researchers rushed the development of the COVID-19 vaccine, so its effectiveness and safety cannot be trusted
  5. MYTH: Getting the COVID-19 vaccine gives you COVID-19
  6. MYTH: The side effects of the COVID-19 vaccine are dangerous
  7. MYTH: The messenger RNA technology used to make the COVID-19 vaccine is brand new
  8. MYTH: The COVID-19 vaccine was developed with or contains controversial substances
  9. MYTH: Now that we have a vaccine for COVID-19, we can make vaccines for the common cold, HIV and other diseases
  10. Myths vs. Facts: Making Sense of COVID-19 Vaccine Misinformation
  11. FACT: “Vaccine developers didn’t skip any testing steps, but conducted some of the steps on an overlapping schedule to gather data faster.”—Johns Hopkins Medicine
  12. FACT: The technology used, called messenger RNA, or mRNA, is not new. Research on it actually began in the early 1990s, and two diseases that are very close to COVID—SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) in 2003, and MERS (Middle East respiratory syndrome)—helped bring the mRNA vaccine development to present day use.—Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Understanding mRNA COVID-19 Vaccines
  13. FACT: As of August 9, the CDC said there had been 8,054 vaccinated people who were hospitalized or died who had also tested positive for coronavirus— more than 166 million fully vaccinated Americans. That’s roughly .005 percent. Additionally, CDC director Rochelle Walensky has said that 99.5 percent of all deaths from COVID-19 are in the unvaccinated.—Politifact, Fact Checking Joe Biden’s Figure on Unvaccinated COVID-19 Deaths
  14. FACT: This rumor started after a report claimed inaccurately, yet circulated on social media, that the SPIKE protein on this coronavirus was the same as another protein called syncytin-1 that is involved in the growth and attachment of the placenta during pregnancy. It was quickly debunked as false by the scientific community.—STAT News, Shattering the Infertility Myth
  15. FACT: “After people recover from infection with a virus, the immune system retains a memory of it,” the National Institutes of Health explains. While that’s good for the immune system, it also means that even after you recover from COVID, it’s still inside your body and can resurface. Studies have been unclear how long immunity lasts after having COVID—most experts believe anywhere from 90 days to six months, though it could be longer.—National Institutes of Health
  16. FACT: “Hundreds of children in Indonesia have died from the coronavirus in recent weeks, many of them under age 5.” A five-year old boy in the state of Georgia died of coronavirus in July.—The New York Times , and CNN
  17. FACT: Studies have shown that a person infected with the Delta variant of COVID has roughly 1,000 times more copies of the virus in their respiratory tracts than a person infected with the original strain.—CDC, Delta Variant: What We Know About the Science
  18. FACT: It is not medically possible. The vaccine does not contain the virus.—Johns Hopkins Medicine
  19. FACT: This one started when Microsoft cofounder Gates said in an interview: “We will have some digital certificates” that could ultimately show who’s been tested and who’s been vaccinated. (Alas, he never mentioned microchips.)—BBC, Coronavirus: Bill Gates Microchip Conspiracy Theory
  20. Comparing the COVID-19 Vaccines: How Are They Different? > News > Yale Medicine
  21. Moderna
  22. Johnson & Johnson

COVID-19 Vaccines: Myth Versus Fact

Comparing COVID-19 Shot to Well Known Shots May Increase Vaccine Trust

Featured Experts:

  • Lisa Maragakis, M.D., M.P.H.

Now that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has authorized vaccines for COVID-19, and their distribution has begun, Lisa Maragakis, M.D., M.P.H., senior director of infection prevention, and Gabor Kelen, M.D., director of the Johns Hopkins Office of Critical Event Preparedness and Response, review some common myths circulating about the vaccine and clear up confusion with reliable facts.

MYTH: The COVID-19 vaccine can affect women’s fertility

FACT: The COVID-19 vaccine will not affect fertility. The truth is that the COVID-19 vaccine encourages the body to create copies of the spike protein found on the coronavirus’s surface. This “teaches” the body’s immune system to fight the virus that has that specific spike protein on it.

Confusion arose when a false report surfaced on social media, saying that the spike protein on this coronavirus was the same as another spike protein called syncitin-1 that is involved in the growth and attachment of the placenta during pregnancy.

The false report said that getting the COVID-19 vaccine would cause a woman’s body to fight this different spike protein and affect her fertility.

The two spike proteins are completely different and distinct, and getting the COVID-19 vaccine will not affect the fertility of women who are seeking to become pregnant, including through in vitro fertilization methods.

During the Pfizer vaccine tests, 23 women volunteers involved in the study became pregnant, and the only one who suffered a pregnancy loss had not received the actual vaccine, but a placebo.

Getting COVID-19, on the other hand, can have potentially serious impact on pregnancy and the mother’s health. Learn more about coronavirus and pregnancy. Johns Hopkins Medicine encourages women to reach out to their medical providers to discuss other questions they have about COVID-19 as it relates to fertility or pregnancy.

MYTH: If I’ve already had COVID-19, I don’t need a vaccine

FACT: Evidence continues to indicate that getting a COVID-19 vaccine is the best protection against getting COVID-19, whether you have already had COVID-19 or not.

  • A study published in August 2021 indicates that if you had COVID-19 before and are not vaccinated, your risk of getting reinfected is more than two times higher than for those who were infected and got vaccinated.
  • While evidence suggests there is some level of immunity for those who previously had COVID, it is not known how long you are protected from getting COVID-19 again. Plus, the level of immunity provided by the vaccines after having COVID-19 is higher than the level of immunity for those who had COVID but were not subsequently vaccinated.
  • Getting vaccinated provides greater protection to others since the vaccine helps reduce the spread of COVID-19.

At the time of vaccination, be sure to tell your care provider about your history of COVID-19 illness, including the kind of treatment, if any, you received and when you recovered. Wait until your isolation period ends before making an appointment to get the vaccination.

MYTH: Researchers rushed the development of the COVID-19 vaccine, so its effectiveness and safety cannot be trusted

FACT: Studies found that the two initial vaccines are both about 95% effective — and reported no serious or life-threatening side effects. There are many reasons why the COVID-19 vaccines could be developed so quickly. Here are just a few:

  • The COVID-19 vaccines from Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna were created with a method that has been in development for years, so the companies could start the vaccine development process early in the pandemic.
  • China isolated and shared genetic information about COVID-19 promptly, so scientists could start working on vaccines.
  • The vaccine developers didn’t skip any testing steps, but conducted some of the steps on an overlapping schedule to gather data faster.
  • Vaccine projects had plenty of resources, as governments invested in research and/or paid for vaccines in advance.
  • Some types of COVID-19 vaccines were created using messenger RNA (mRNA), which allows a faster approach than the traditional way that vaccines are made.
  • Social media helped companies find and engage study volunteers, and many were willing to help with COVID-19 vaccine research.
  • Because COVID-19 is so contagious and widespread, it did not take long to see if the vaccine worked for the study volunteers who were vaccinated.
  • Companies began making vaccines early in the process — even before FDA authorization — so some supplies were ready when authorization occurred.

FACT: The CDC continues to monitor the spread of COVID-19 and makes recommendations for wearing face masks, both for those who are fully vaccinated as well as those who are not fully vaccinated.

The CDC also recommends that masks and physical distancing are required when going to the doctor’s office, hospitals or long-term care facilities, including all Johns Hopkins hospitals, care centers and offices.

Johns Hopkins Medicine’s current mask safety guidelines have not changed, and we still require all individuals to wear masks inside all of our facilities.

MYTH: Getting the COVID-19 vaccine gives you COVID-19

FACT: The vaccine for COVID-19 cannot and will not give you COVID-19.

The two authorized mRNA vaccines instruct your cells to reproduce a protein that is part of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, which helps your body recognize and fight the virus, if it comes along.

The COVID-19 vaccine does not contain the SARS-Co-2 virus, so you cannot get COVID-19 from the vaccine. The protein that helps your immune system recognize and fight the virus does not cause infection of any sort.

MYTH: The side effects of the COVID-19 vaccine are dangerous

FACT: In April 2021, the CDC temporarily paused and then resumed use of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine. Read full story.

The Pfizer and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines can have side effects, but the vast majority are very short term —not serious or dangerous.

The vaccine developers report that some people experience pain where they were injected; body aches; headaches or fever, lasting for a day or two.

These are signs that the vaccine is working to stimulate your immune system. If symptoms persist beyond two days, you should call your doctor.

If you have allergies — especially severe ones that require you to carry an EpiPen — discuss the COVID-19 vaccine with your doctor, who can assess your risk and provide more information about if and how you can get vaccinated safely.

Sign up to receive coronavirus (COVID-19) email updates from Johns Hopkins Medicine.

FACT: The COVID-19 vaccines are designed to help your body’s immune system fight the coronavirus.

The messenger RNA from two of the first types of COVID-19 vaccines does enter cells, but not the nucleus of the cells where DNA resides.

The mRNA does its job to cause the cell to make protein to stimulate the immune system, and then it quickly breaks down — without affecting your DNA.

MYTH: The messenger RNA technology used to make the COVID-19 vaccine is brand new

FACT: The mRNA technology behind the new coronavirus vaccines has been in development for almost two decades. Vaccine makers created the technology to help them respond quickly to a new pandemic illness, such as COVID-19.

MYTH: The COVID-19 vaccine was developed with or contains controversial substances

FACT: The first two COVID-19 vaccines to be authorized by the FDA contain mRNA and other, normal vaccine ingredients, such as fats (which protect the mRNA), salts, as well as a small amount of sugar. These COVID-19 vaccines were not developed using fetal tissue, and they do not contain any material, such as implants, microchips or tracking devices.

MYTH: Now that we have a vaccine for COVID-19, we can make vaccines for the common cold, HIV and other diseases

FACT: The thousands of viruses that cause various diseases are very different. Many change (mutate) year by year, making it difficult to develop one vaccine that works for a long period of time.

Developing vaccines for some disease-causing viruses is tough. For example, the virus that causes HIV can hide and make itself undetectable by the human immune system, which makes creating a vaccine for it extremely difficult.

The common cold can be caused by any one of hundreds of different viruses, so a vaccine for just one of them would not be very effective.

What you need to know from Johns Hopkins Medicine.

Updated September 23, 2021

Источник: https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/coronavirus/covid-19-vaccines-myth-versus-fact

Myths vs. Facts: Making Sense of COVID-19 Vaccine Misinformation

Comparing COVID-19 Shot to Well Known Shots May Increase Vaccine Trust

Myth: pronounced mith; noun; definition: a widely held but false belief or idea; synonyms: misconception, fallacy, fantasy, fiction.

Among the many reasons COVID-19 vaccination rates in the United States peaked earlier than experts hoped—then, rather than crescendoing into the summer months, began trending downward—are myths that took hold among the unvaccinated and solidified as their reasons not to get the shots. The vaccine will make women sterile; the vaccines are too new; the shots have a microchip in them; the vaccine itself will give me COVID; I’m immune because I had COVID; breakthrough cases prove vaccines are useless.

There are more. And none of them are true. 

But no matter how convincing and irrefutable the science and the data about the COVID-19 vaccines are, misinformation spreads so easily and quickly—largely through social media networks—that it has become a major barrier stopping the United States from reaching higher levels of vaccination (190 million people, or 57 percent of Americans, have received at least one shot) that would bring us closer to herd immunity. 

So let’s cut to the chase. Myth vs. Fact.

The Brink took some of the most widespread myths to two leading infectious disease experts, Davidson Hamer, a faculty member of BU’s School of Public Health, School of Medicine, and National Emerging Infectious Diseases Laboratories, and Sabrina Assoumou, a BU School of Medicine assistant professor of medicine and of infectious diseases and a Boston Medical Center physician.

If these two experts encountered someone on the street who cited one of these myths as their reason not to get vaccinated, this is what they would say to them. To provide extra context, we include one more fact.

MYTH: The COVID vaccines were not rigorously tested, which is why they have only emergency authorization approval and not full Food and Drug Administration approval. (Update: Pfizer’s vaccine received full FDA approval on August 19)

FACT: “Vaccine developers didn’t skip any testing steps, but conducted some of the steps on an overlapping schedule to gather data faster.”—Johns Hopkins Medicine

Assoumou: This is the most common question I get asked. I think there is a perception that things moved very fast, but we want to underscore that the technology being used now was being studied for a decade.

The main difference between emergency use versus full FDA approval is that you need two months of monitoring rather than six months. When you look at the history of vaccines, if patients were to develop side effects, these occurred within two months. We are now over six months into our experience with these vaccines.

We have not seen anything that would make us believe that the risks outweigh the benefits. And vaccines have saved so many lives.

Hamer: The development was more rapid than many other vaccines. But it used the same process of phase one and phase two trials following appropriate safety measures.

Stage three trials were large-scale trials done rigorously with very clear outcome definitions. The safety measures and approaches taken are standard for clinical trials. They just did it more rapidly than usual.

The full process review is ongoing and we are already hearing that Pfizer will have full FDA authorization by September and Moderna soon after.

MYTH: The technology used to create the COVID vaccines is too new to be safe.

FACT: The technology used, called messenger RNA, or mRNA, is not new. Research on it actually began in the early 1990s, and two diseases that are very close to COVID—SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) in 2003, and MERS (Middle East respiratory syndrome)—helped bring the mRNA vaccine development to present day use.—Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Understanding mRNA COVID-19 Vaccines

Assoumou: The reason this is called SARS-COV-2 is that there was a SARS-1, the original one, and scientists were working on this vaccine. So when this pandemic arrived they had already developed a lot of the science. A decade of work was actually going on. That’s one issue I to emphasize when people think it was rushed.

The other point I to remind people is that these vaccines went through all the regulatory steps any other vaccines. None of this was rushed. The FDA reviewed all the data. When you say “Emergency use,” people think it was rushed, but the way to think about it is that the benefits outweigh the risks.

MYTH: Breakthrough cases prove that even if I get the vaccine, I might still get COVID. So why bother?

FACT: As of August 9, the CDC said there had been 8,054 vaccinated people who were hospitalized or died who had also tested positive for coronavirus— more than 166 million fully vaccinated Americans. That’s roughly .005 percent. Additionally, CDC director Rochelle Walensky has said that 99.5 percent of all deaths from COVID-19 are in the unvaccinated.—Politifact, Fact Checking Joe Biden’s Figure on Unvaccinated COVID-19 Deaths

Hamer: COVID vaccines have been shown to be very powerful in preventing more severe disease and the need for hospitalization. Breakthroughs occur at a much, much lower rate than in people who are unvaccinated.

The breakthroughs have been occurring more frequently with the Delta variant because of the high level of infectiousness (or transmissibility) of the Delta variant and lower protection of current vaccines against this variant. But people having breakthroughs have much more mild infection, more an upper respiratory infection.

The vaccines prevent severe disease and complications and allow people to return to a more normal state. 

Assoumou: I was just at the hospital taking care of patients. I can tell you all the cases of people getting hospitalized are unvaccinated. Breakthrough cases account for much less than 1 percent.

There are so many zeros before the one—99 percent of people dying now of COVID are unvaccinated. And 97 percent of those hospitalized are unvaccinated. We are just not seeing large numbers of people vaccinated being hospitalized.

And if you get it, for the most part it is having a cold.

MYTH: The COVID vaccines can affect a woman’s fertility.

FACT: This rumor started after a report claimed inaccurately, yet circulated on social media, that the SPIKE protein on this coronavirus was the same as another protein called syncytin-1 that is involved in the growth and attachment of the placenta during pregnancy. It was quickly debunked as false by the scientific community.—STAT News, Shattering the Infertility Myth

Hamer: I think people were worried that the messenger RNA in these vaccines messes with their genes. It doesn’t. It doesn’t even make it into the nucleus of your cells. It won’t intervene with any metabolic activity. 

Assoumou: Ohh, this is so common that I hear this. For young women of childbearing age, it’s a common question. It started with a report that was incorrect and has been debunked.

But unfortunately, once the information gets out there, the correct information doesn’t always come through.

I tell people that when we look at the mechanism by which these vaccines work, we see that they simply don’t impact fertility.

MYTH: I already had COVID, therefore I don’t need the vaccine. I’m immune.

FACT: “After people recover from infection with a virus, the immune system retains a memory of it,” the National Institutes of Health explains. While that’s good for the immune system, it also means that even after you recover from COVID, it’s still inside your body and can resurface. Studies have been unclear how long immunity lasts after having COVID—most experts believe anywhere from 90 days to six months, though it could be longer.—National Institutes of Health

Assoumou: That’s a very common one. The information we have right now is that vaccines provide a more broad-based immune response that will protect you for a longer period of time. With the mRNA vaccines, you have two shots, one to prime and then another one to boost the immune system. You need the boost to protect you for a longer period of time.

Hamer: After three to six months or so, the natural immunity begins to wane and the risk of reinfection returns. We are definitely seeing people develop reinfections.

Receiving the vaccine after having COVID is a booster effect, and therefore it’s much more effective.

Studies have been done comparing those who had the disease versus those who did not, and those who got at least one shot after having COVID end up with very high levels of antibodies.

MYTH: Children do not need to be vaccinated because they do not become sick from COVID-19.

FACT: “Hundreds of children in Indonesia have died from the coronavirus in recent weeks, many of them under age 5.” A five-year old boy in the state of Georgia died of coronavirus in July.—The New York Times , and CNN

Hamer: Children have much milder symptoms and are less ly to be hospitalized. But since children can become infected and transmit the virus, they can serve as an ongoing source of transmission. Everything seems to be changing with the Delta variant. It leads to a much higher viral load. And that includes children. 

Assoumou: That’s a very common one. It is true that children are not dying at the same rate as we are seeing in older adults. But children are going to grow up to be adults. We want to protect them as soon as possible. In addition, we are seeing some of the consequences of COVID. Not only deaths.

But there is also multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MISC) of children, where children get very sick, and we are still figuring out the details and long-term complications of this syndrome. Then there are emerging data that children are developing long COVID [symptoms that linger].

We have vaccines that are safe and effective in children 12 and above and we’re hoping we’ll have it soon for younger kids.

Also, children are part of the “herd.” When we talk about “herd immunity,” we are referring to the level of immunity when the disease stops spreading in the community. Children are part of the population.

Now that we have the Delta variant, we’re going to have to get to an even higher percentage of the population vaccinated to reach population level immunity. Children are part of the community.

It will be harder to get to some normalcy if a large proportion of the population remains unvaccinated.

MYTH: I’m vaccinated. So I can drop all my COVID precautions, right?

FACT: Studies have shown that a person infected with the Delta variant of COVID has roughly 1,000 times more copies of the virus in their respiratory tracts than a person infected with the original strain.—CDC, Delta Variant: What We Know About the Science

Hamer: The challenge is that Delta is so transmissible that I am starting to advise people to wear masks again in supermarkets and stores and public places.

But Delta is causing outbreaks mostly in unvaccinated people and only in some vaccinated people.

Until we get to the point where transmission slows to a trickle, Delta is just more easily spread, and we are quickly learning that it can easily lead to vaccine breakthroughs and even be spread from one vaccinated person to another. 

Assoumou: The vaccines are safe, and remarkably effective. But what precautions to take will decide on a lot of factors. For example, where you live.

Are you in a place with high vaccination coverage, Massachusetts, or a southern state with low vaccination coverage and high case rate. It also depends on what activity you are engaging in. Outside not in a crowd, that’s safe.

You don’t need a mask, but inside in a crowd where you don’t know who is vaccinated or unvaccinated, then you may still want to follow public health measures. If you have children less than 12, I do, then you also need to be a little more cautious.

In addition, if you have a compromised immune system, then you also need to take some precautions. If you happen to be in a place with high vaccination coverage and a lower case rate, then it might depend on your level of comfort for risk.

I do want to remind people there are still places we should mask up, the doctor’s office or on public transportation.

MYTH: Getting the COVID vaccine actually gives you COVID.

FACT: It is not medically possible. The vaccine does not contain the virus.—Johns Hopkins Medicine

Hamer: COVID vaccines are not made with live virus SARS-COV-2 virus cells. They are not giving individuals the virus itself so you can’t get COVID from getting the vaccine.

MYTH: A microchip, with the backing of Bill Gates, is being implanted with the vaccine.

FACT: This one started when Microsoft cofounder Gates said in an interview: “We will have some digital certificates” that could ultimately show who’s been tested and who’s been vaccinated. (Alas, he never mentioned microchips.)—BBC, Coronavirus: Bill Gates Microchip Conspiracy Theory

Assoumou: If you are worried about being monitored, just look at your phone. You’re much more ly to have your activities tracked there. There is no microchip in the vaccine. 

(When asked if she is able to able to keep a straight face when someone brings up the microchip to her, Assoumou said: “You have to be empathetic, so that people know you are listening to them.”)

Источник: https://www.bu.edu/articles/2021/myths-vs-facts-covid-19-vaccine/

Comparing the COVID-19 Vaccines: How Are They Different? > News > Yale Medicine

Comparing COVID-19 Shot to Well Known Shots May Increase Vaccine Trust

Pfizer-BioNTech was the first COVID-19 vaccine to receive full Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for people ages 16 and older in August 2021.

It was also the first COVID-19 vaccine to receive FDA Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) back in December 2020, after the company reported its vaccine was highly effective at preventing symptomatic disease. This is a messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine, which uses a relatively new technology.

It must be stored in freezer-level temperatures, which can make it more difficult to distribute than some other vaccines.

Status: Approved for ages 16 and older in the U.S., with EUA for ages 5-15, and in other countries, including in the European Union (under the name Comirnaty), for specified age groups.

The CDC recommends a booster dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine for people 65 and up, residents of long-term care settings, and people 18 to 64 with underlying medical conditions or whose work may put them at higher risk of exposure to COVID-19. That latter group may include health care workers, teachers, and others.

People with certain immunocompromising conditions can get a third dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna vaccines so they can reach a level of immunity they were not able to reach after two doses.

 In October, the CDC issued additional interim guidelines saying that moderately and severely immunocompromised people who received an mRNA vaccine and are 18 and older may receive a booster dose of any COVID-19 vaccine at least six months after their third dose

Recommended for: Children and adults ages 5 and older. 

Dosage: Two shots, 21 days apart; fully effective two weeks after second shot. Single-shot booster doses can be administered to those who are eligible at least six months after completion of the primary doses.

Because Pfizer-BioNTech says its data shows a smaller dose produces a strong immune response in children, the two 10-microgram doses for children ages 5-11 is smaller than the two 30-microgram doses given to teens and adults.

Common side effects: Chills, headache, pain, tiredness, and/or redness and swelling at the injection site, all of which generally resolve within a day or two of rest, hydration, and medications acetaminophen. (If symptoms don’t resolve within 72 hours or if you have respiratory symptoms, such as cough or shortness of breath, call your doctor.

) On rare occasions, the vaccine has appeared to trigger anaphylaxis, a severe reaction that is treatable with epinephrine (the drug in Epipens®). For that reason, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) requires vaccination sites to monitor everyone for 15 minutes after their COVID-19 shot and for 30 minutes if they have a history of severe allergies.

FDA warnings: The FDA placed a warning label on the Pfizer vaccine regarding a “ly association” with reported cases of heart inflammation in young adults.

This inflammation may occur in the heart muscle (myocarditis) or in the outer lining of the heart (pericarditis), and is considered important but uncommon—arising in about 12.6 cases per million second doses administered.

The inflammation, in most cases, gets better on its own without medical intervention.

How it works: Un vaccines that put a weakened or inactivated disease germ into the body, the Pfizer mRNA vaccine delivers a tiny piece of genetic code from the SARS CoV-2 virus to host cells in the body, essentially giving those cells instructions, or blueprints, for making copies of spike proteins (the spikes you see sticking the coronavirus in pictures online and on TV). The spikes do the work of penetrating and infecting host cells. These proteins stimulate an immune response, producing antibodies and developing memory cells that will recognize and respond if the body is infected with the actual virus.

How well it works: Experts continue to learn about Pfizer’s efficacy both in the laboratory and in the real world. Pfizer’s initial Phase 3 clinical data presented in December showed its vaccine to have 95% efficacy. In April, the company announced the vaccine had 91.

3% efficacy against COVID-19, measuring how well it prevented symptomatic COVID-19 infection seven days through up to six months after the second dose. It also found it to be 100% effective in preventing severe disease as defined by the CDC, and 95.3% effective in preventing severe disease as defined by the FDA.

Another study, not yet peer-reviewed, provided more new data that brought the efficacy number down to 84% after 6 months, although efficacy against severe disease was 97%.

In August, the CDC also published studies that showed mRNA vaccine protection against infection may be waning, although the vaccines were still highly effective against hospitalization. In one CDC study, data from the state of New York showed vaccine effectiveness dropping from 91.8 to 75% against infection.

How well it works on virus mutations: A number of studies have focused on the vaccine and the mutations.

In early May, the Pfizer vaccine was found to be more than 95% effective against severe disease or death from the Alpha variant (first detected in the United Kingdom) and the Beta variant (first identified in South Africa) in two studies real-world vaccinations.

As far as the Delta variant, two studies reported by Public Health England that have not yet been peer reviewed showed that full vaccination after two doses is 88% effective against symptomatic disease and 96% effective against hospitalization. But Israel later reported the vaccine’s effectiveness to be 90% effective against severe disease, and 39% against infection in its population in late June and early July, an analysis of the country's national health statistics.

Moderna

Moderna’s vaccine was authorized for emergency use in the U.S. in December 2020, about a week after the Pfizer vaccine. Moderna uses the same mRNA technology as Pfizer and has a similarly high efficacy at preventing symptomatic disease.

It also needs to be stored in freezer-level temperatures.

 In mid-August, the FDA approved a third dose of the Moderna vaccine for certain immuno-compromised individuals, including solid organ transplant recipients and those with conditions that give them an equally reduced ability to fight infections and other diseases. 

Status: Emergency use in the U.S for the vaccine, as well as for a half-dose booster for people 65 and older, and younger adults who have medical conditions or jobs that put them at high risk, following the same protocol the CDC recommends for Pfizer vaccine recipients.

People with certain immunocompromising conditions can get a third dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna vaccines so they can reach a level of immunity they were not able to reach after two doses.

 In October, the CDC issued additional interim guidelines saying that moderately and severely immunocompromised people who received an mRNA vaccine, and are 18 and older, may receive a booster dose of any COVID-19 vaccine at least six months after their third dose.

Recommended for: Adults 18 and older. While the vaccine is not yet available for children, the company says its vaccine provides strong protection for children as young as 12.

Dosage: Two shots, 28 days apart; fully effective two weeks after the second dose.

Common side effects: Similar to Pfizer, side effects can include chills, headache, pain, tiredness, and/or redness and swelling at the injection site, all of which generally resolve within a day or two.

On rare occasions, mRNA vaccines have appeared to trigger anaphylaxis, a severe reaction that is treatable with epinephrine (the drug in Epipens®).

For that reason, the CDC requires vaccination sites to monitor everyone for 15 minutes after their COVID-19 shot, and for 30 minutes if they have a history of severe allergies. 

FDA warnings: The FDA placed a warning label on the Moderna vaccine regarding a “ly association” with reported cases of heart inflammation in young adults.

This inflammation may occur in the heart muscle (myocarditis) or in the outer lining of the heart (pericarditis), and is considered important but uncommon—arising in about 12.6 cases per million second doses administered.

The inflammation, in most cases, gets better on its own without treatment.

How it works: Similar to the Pfizer vaccine, this is an mRNA vaccine that sends the body’s cells instructions for making a spike protein that will train the immune system to recognize it. The immune system will then attack the spike protein the next time it sees one (attached to the actual SARS CoV-2 virus).

How well it works: Moderna’s initial Phase 3 clinical data in December 2020 was similar to Pfizer’s—at that point, both vaccines showed about 95% efficacy. This figure has changed over time.

At six months after vaccination, the Moderna vaccine was shown to have efficacy of 90% against infection and more than 95% against developing a severe case, according to the company. In addition, while both Pfizer and Moderna still are considered highly effective, several recent studies showed Moderna to be more protective.

One study published in The New England Journal of Medicine found Moderna vaccine to be 96.3% effective in preventing symptomatic illness in health care workers compared to 88.8% for Pfizer.

Another, from the CDC, found Moderna’s effectiveness against hospitalization held steady over a four-month period, while Pfizer’s fell from 91% to 77%. This research is still limited and more data is needed to fully understand the differences between the two vaccines.

How well it works on virus mutations: Some research has suggested that Moderna’s vaccine may provide protection against the Alpha and Beta variants. In June, Moderna reported that studies showed its vaccine is effective against the Beta, Delta, Eta, and Kappa variants, although it did show it to be about two times weaker against Delta than against the original virus.

Johnson & Johnson

The FDA granted EUA for Johnson & Johnson’s vaccine in February, 70 days after Pfizer and Moderna. Un the mRNA vaccines, this is a carrier, or virus vector, vaccine. It can be stored in normal refrigerator temperatures, and because it requires only a single shot, it is easier to distribute and administer. 

Status: Emergency use in the U.S for the vaccine, as well as for a booster for all adults 18 and older, which is to be given at least two months after the initial inoculation.

CDC interim guidelines recommend moderately and severely immunocompromised people who received one dose of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine get a second dose of either an mRNA or J&J vaccine at least two months after their initial shot.

Recommended for: Adults 18 and older. While the vaccine is not yet available for children, the company says its vaccine provides strong protection for children as young as 12.

Dosage: Single shot. Fully effective two weeks after vaccination.

Common side effects: Fatigue, fever headache, injection site pain, or myalgia (pain in a muscle or group of muscles), all of which generally resolve within a day or two.

It has had noticeably milder side effects than the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines, according to the FDA report released in late February.

No one suffered an allergic reaction in clinical trials for the vaccine, according to the company.

FDA warnings: The FDA has attached two warnings to the Johnson & Johnson vaccine. In July, the FDA attached a warning after rare cases of the neurological disorder Guillain-Barré syndrome were reported in a small number of vaccination recipients. Most of the cases occurred within 42 days after vaccination.

In April, the FDA added a warning label after ending a pause on the vaccine it had recommended “ an abundance of caution” over an uncommon, but potentially serious, blood clotting disorder that occurred in a small number of recipients. 

How it works: This is a carrier vaccine, which uses a different approach than the mRNA vaccines to instruct human cells to make the SARS CoV-2 spike protein.

Scientists engineer a harmless adenovirus (a common virus that, when not inactivated, can cause colds, bronchitis, and other illnesses) as a shell to carry genetic code on the spike proteins to the cells (similar to a Trojan Horse).

The shell and the code can’t make you sick, but once the code is inside the cells, the cells produce a spike protein to train the body’s immune system, which creates antibodies and memory cells to protect against an actual SARS-CoV-2 infection.

How well it works: 72% overall efficacy and 86% efficacy against moderate and severe disease in the U.S., according to analyses posted by the FDA in February.

 In early October, J&J reported in a company press release that clinical trial data showed that a booster shot given about two months after the first shot increased protection to 94% against moderate to severe disease in the U.S. 

How well it works on virus mutations: Johnson & Johnson reported in July that its vaccine is also effective against the Delta variant, showing only a small drop in potency compared with its efficacy against the original strain of the virus, although one recent study suggested that the J&J vaccine is less effective against Delta.

But the first study to assess the vaccine against Delta in the real world reported the vaccine to be 71% effective against hospitalization and up to 95% effective against death.

The vaccine’s performance was slightly lower against the Beta variant in the study. This preliminary research was reported in August at a news conference by the Ministry of Health in South Africa.

 These studies have not yet been peer-reviewed or published in a scientific journal.

Источник: https://www.yalemedicine.org/news/covid-19-vaccine-comparison

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