Causes and Risk Factors of Mood Swings

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Causes and Risk Factors of Mood Swings
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A mood disorder is a class of serious mental illnesses. The term broadly describes all types of depression and bipolar disorders.

Children, teens, and adults can all have mood disorders. But children and teens don’t always have the same symptoms as adults. It’s harder to diagnose mood disorders in children. That's because they can't always express how they feel.

Therapy, medicines, and support and self-care can help treat mood disorders.

What are the different types of mood disorders?

These are the most common types of mood disorders:

  • Major depression. Having less interest in normal activities, feeling sad or hopeless, and other symptoms for at least 2 weeks may mean depression.
  • Dysthymia. This is an ongoing (chronic), low-grade, depressed, or irritable mood that lasts for at least 2 years.
  • Bipolar disorder. With this condition a person has times of depression alternating with times of mania or a higher mood.
  • Mood disorder linked to another health condition. Many health conditions (including cancer, injuries, infections, and chronic illnesses) can trigger symptoms of depression.
  • Substance-induced mood disorder.Symptoms of depression that are due to the effects of medicine, drug abuse, alcoholism, exposure to toxins, or other forms of treatment.

Many factors help lead to mood disorders. They are ly caused by an imbalance of brain chemicals. Life events (such as stressful life changes) may also help lead to a depressed mood. Mood disorders also tend to run in families.

Anyone can feel sad or depressed at times. But mood disorders are more intense and last longer. They are also harder to manage than normal feelings of sadness.

Children, teens, or adults who have a parent with a mood disorder have a greater chance of also having a mood disorder. But life events and stress can expose or worsen feelings of sadness or depression.

This makes the feelings harder to manage.

Sometimes life's problems can trigger depression. Things such as being fired from a job, getting divorced, losing a loved one, having a death in the family, and financial trouble, all can be difficult. Coping with the pressure may be troublesome. These life events and stress can bring on feelings of sadness or depression. Or they can make a mood disorder harder to manage.

The risk of depression in women is nearly twice as high as it is for men. Once a person in the family has this diagnosis, their siblings and their children have a higher chance of the same diagnosis.

Depending on age and the type of mood disorder, a person may have different symptoms when they become depressed. The following are the most common symptoms of a mood disorder:

  • Ongoing sad, anxious, or “empty” mood
  • Feeling hopeless or helpless
  • Having low self-esteem
  • Feeling inadequate or worthless
  • Excessive guilt
  • Not interested in normal activities or activities that were once enjoyed, including sex
  • Relationship problems
  • Trouble sleeping or sleeping too much
  • Changes in appetite or weight
  • Decreased energy
  • Trouble focusing
  • Less able to make decisions
  • Frequent physical complaints (for example, headache, stomachache, or tiredness) that don’t get better with treatment
  • Running away or threats of running away from home
  • Very sensitive to failure or rejection
  • Irritability, hostility, or aggression
  • Repeated thoughts of death or suicide, planning for death, or wishing to die

In mood disorders, these feelings are more intense than what a person may normally feel from time to time. It’s also of concern if these feelings continue over time. Or if they interfere with someone's interest in family, friends, community, or work.

Any person who has thoughts of suicide should get medical help right away. If you can't get in immediately to your primary care provider, go to a reputable mental health facility in your community. Don't put it off.

The symptoms of mood disorders may seem other conditions or mental health problems. Always talk with a healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

When suicide is a risk

Mood disorders can cause repeated thoughts of death or suicide, planning for death, or wishing to die. People with these symptoms should get treatment right away.

Call 911 if a person has suicidal thoughts, a suicide plan, and the means to carry out the plan. Don't leave the person alone, even for a moment.

Call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 800-273-8255.

Mood disorders are serious illnesses. A psychiatrist or other mental health provider often diagnoses mood disorders with a complete health history and psychiatric evaluation.

Mood disorders can often be treated with success. Treatment may include:

  • Antidepressant and mood-stabilizing medicines.These medicines work very well in treating mood disorders, especially when combined with psychotherapy.
  • Psychotherapy (most often cognitive-behavioral or interpersonal therapy). This kind of therapy is focused on changing the person’s distorted view of themselves and their environment. It also helps to improve relationship skills. And it can help the person find stressors in the environment and learn how to stay away from them.
  • Family therapy. A mood disorder can affect all aspects of a family (emotional, physical, and financial). Professional support can help both the person with the diagnosis and family members.
  • Other therapies. These may include electroconvulsive therapy and transcranial stimulation.

Families play a vital supportive role in any treatment process.

Someone with a mood disorder may have times of stability and times when symptoms return. Long-term, continuous treatment can help the person stay healthy and control symptoms.

When correctly diagnosed and treated, people with mood disorders can live, stable, productive, healthy lives.

At this time, there are no ways to prevent or reduce mood disorders. But early diagnosis and treatment can reduce the severity of symptoms. It can also enhance the person’s normal growth and development, and improve their quality of life.

Key points about mood disorders

  • A mood disorder is a class of serious mental illnesses. The term broadly describes all types of depression and bipolar disorders.
  • Children, teens, and adults can all have mood disorders.
  • Many factors help lead to mood disorders. They are ly caused by an imbalance of brain chemicals.
  • Most people with a mood disorder have ongoing feelings of sadness. They may feel helpless and hopeless.
  • Without treatment, symptoms can last for weeks, months, or years. They can affect quality of life.
  • Mood disorders are most often treated with medicine, psychotherapy or cognitive behavioral therapy, family therapy, or a combination of medicine and therapy.
  • Long-term, comprehensive follow-up care will help ensure the support needed for a full, productive life.

Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare provider:

  • Know the reason for your visit and what you want to happen.
  • Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
  • Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your provider tells you.
  • At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments, or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you.
  • Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed, and how it will help you. Also know what the side effects are.
  • Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.
  • Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
  • Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
  • If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that visit.
  • Know how you can contact your provider if you have questions.

Medical Reviewer: Paul Ballas MD

Medical Reviewer: Marianne Fraser MSN RN

Medical Reviewer: L Renee Watson MSN RN

© 2000-2021 The StayWell Company, LLC. All rights reserved. This information is not intended as a substitute for professional medical care. Always follow your healthcare professional's instructions.

Источник: https://www.cedars-sinai.org/health-library/diseases-and-conditions/o/overview-of-mood-disorders.html

Mood Disorders; Causes, Symptoms, Management & Treatment

Causes and Risk Factors of Mood Swings

Treatment depends on the specific type of mood disorder diagnosed and the specific symptoms present. Mood Disorders

A mood disorder is a mental health problem that primarily affects a person’s emotional state. It is a disorder in which a person experiences long periods of extreme happiness, extreme sadness, or both.

It is normal for someone’s mood to change, depending on the situation. However, to be diagnosed with a mood disorder, symptoms must be present for several weeks or longer. Mood disorders can cause changes in your behavior and can affect your ability to deal with routine activities, such as work or school.

Two of the most common mood disorders are depression and bipolar disorder. This article will review these disorders and some of their many subtypes.

Depression (major or clinical depression). Depression is a common mental disorder. Grief or sadness is a typical response to a traumatic life event or crisis, such as the death of a spouse or family member, loss of a job, or a major illness.

However, when the depression continues to be present even when stressful events are over or there is no apparent cause, physicians would then classify the depression as clinical or major depression.

For a person to be diagnosed with clinical depression, symptoms must last for at least two weeks.

There are several different types of depression. Symptoms may vary depending on the form of the disorder.

  • Postpartum depression (peripartum depression) — This type of depression occurs during pregnancy or after delivery
  • Persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia) — This is a chronic form of depression that can last for at least two years. Symptoms may occasionally lessen in severity during this time.
  • Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) — This is another type of depression that occurs during certain seasons of the year. It typically starts in the late autumn or early winter and lasts until spring or summer. Less commonly, SAD episodes may also begin during the late spring or summer. Symptoms of winter seasonal affective disorder may resemble those of a major depression. They tend to disappear or lessen during spring and summer.
  • Psychotic depression — This is a type of severe depression combined with psychotic episodes, such as hallucinations (seeing or hearing things that others do not) or delusions (having fixed but false beliefs). The episodes may be upsetting or disturbing and often have a theme.
  • Depression related to a medical condition, medication, or substance abuse

Bipolar disorder (manic-depressive disorder). Bipolar disorder is defined by swings in mood from periods of depression to mania.

When someone experiences a low mood, symptoms may resemble those of a clinical depression. Depressive episodes alternate with manic episodes or mania.

During a manic episode, a person may feel elated or can also feel irritable or have increased levels of activity.

There are four basic types of bipolar disorder.

  • Bipolar I — This is the most severe form. Manic episodes last at least seven days or may be severe enough to require hospitalization. Depressive episodes will also occur, often lasting for at least two weeks. Sometimes symptoms of both mania and depression are present at the same time.
  • Bipolar II disorder — This disorder causes cycles of depression similar to those of bipolar I. A person with this illness also experiences hypomania, which is a less severe form of mania. Hypomanic periods are not as intense or disruptive as manic episodes. Someone with bipolar II disorder is usually able to handle daily responsibilities and does not require hospitalization.
  • Cyclothymia disorder (cyclothymia) — This type of bipolar disorder has sometimes been defined as a milder form of bipolar disorder. People with cyclothymia experience continuous irregular mood swings – from mild to moderate emotional “highs” to mild to moderate “lows” – for extended periods of time. In addition, changes in mood can occur quickly and at any time. There are only short periods of normal mood. For an adult to be diagnosed with cyclothymic, symptoms have to be experienced for at least 2 years. For children and adolescents, the, symptoms must persist for at least one year.
  • “Other” or “unspecified” bipolar disorder — Symptoms of this type of bipolar disorder do not meet the criteria for one of the other types but people still have significant, abnormal changes in mood.

Other mood disorders

  • Premenstrual dysphoric disorder — This type of mood disorder occurs seven to 10 days before menstruation and goes away within a few days of the start of the menstrual period. Researchers believe this disorder is brought about by the hormonal changes related to the menstrual cycle. Symptoms may include anger, irritability, tension, decreased interest in usual activities, and sleep problems.
  • Intermittent explosive disorderThis is a lesser-known mood disorder marked by episodes of unwarranted anger. It is commonly referred to as “flying into a rage for no reason.” In an individual with intermittent explosive disorder, the behavioral outbursts are proportion to the situation.

There may be several underlying factors, depending on the type of the disorder. Various genetic, biological, environmental, and other factors have been associated with mood disorders.

Risk factors include:

  • Family history
  • Previous diagnosis of a mood disorder
  • Trauma, stress or major life changes in the case of depression
  • Physical illness or use of certain medications. Depression has been linked to major diseases such as cancer, diabetes, Parkinson’s disease and heart disease.
  • Brain structure and function in the case of bipolar disorder

What are the symptoms of common mood disorders?

Symptoms depend on the type of mood disorder that is present.

Symptoms of major depression may include:

  • Feeling sad most of the time or nearly every day
  • Lack of energy or feeling sluggish
  • Feeling worthless or hopeless
  • Loss of appetite or overeating
  • Gaining weight or losing weight
  • Loss of interest in activities that formerly brought enjoyment
  • Sleeping too much or not enough
  • Frequent thoughts about death or suicide
  • Difficulty concentrating or focusing

Symptoms of bipolar disorder may include both depression and mania. Symptoms of hypomanic or manic episodes include:

  • Feeling extremely energized or elated
  • Rapid speech or movement
  • Agitation, restlessness, or irritability
  • Risk-taking behavior, such as spending too much money or driving recklessly
  • Unusual increase in activity or trying to do too many things at once
  • Racing thoughts
  • Insomnia or trouble sleeping
  • Feeling jumpy or on edge for no apparent reason

Your doctor may perform a physical examination to rule out physiological causes for symptoms, such as a thyroid problem, other illnesses, or a vitamin deficiency.

The doctor will ask about your medical history, any medications you are taking, and whether you or any family members have been diagnosed with a mood disorder.

A mental health professional, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist, will conduct an interview or survey, asking questions about your symptoms, sleeping and eating habits, and other behavior.

Treatment will depend on the specific illness and symptoms that are present. Usually, therapy involves a combination of medication and psychotherapy (also called “talk therapy”). Therapy sessions may be conducted by a psychologist, psychiatrist, or other health professional.

Medications to treat depression and/or bipolar disorders

  • Antidepressants — Many different medications are available to treat depression and depressive episodes of bipolar disorder. Some of the most widely used drugs are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). These include citalopram (Celexa®), escitalopram (Lexapro®), sertraline (Zoloft®), fluoxetine (Prozac®), and paroxetine (Paxil®). Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) such as duloxetine (Cymbalta®) and venlafaxine (Effexor®) also are commonly prescribed and are similar to SSRIs in their action. Bupropion (Wellbutrin®) is used to treat depression and seasonal affective disorder. It works differently than SSRIs or SNRIs. Older types of antidepressants include tricylic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, and tetracyclic antidepressants. Although different types are found to work equally well, some antidepressants may be more effective depending on the individual. It is important to take the antidepressants as prescribed and continue taking them even if you feel better. Usually an antidepressant must be taken as prescribed for 4 to 6 weeks before it begins to work.
  • Mood stabilizers — These medications help to regulate the mood swings that occur with bipolar disorder or other disorders. They reduce abnormal brain activity. Mood stabilizers may also be prescribed along with antidepressants in some cases. Some of the most widely used mood stabilizers include lithium and anticonvulsant drugs, such as valproic acid (Valproic®), lamotrigine (Lamictal®), carbamazepine (Tegretol®), and oxecarbazepine (Trileptal®).
  • Antipsychotics — Patients with bipolar disorder who experience mania or mixed episodes may be treated with an atypical antipsychotic drug, such as aripiprazole (Abilify®). Atypical antipsychotics may also sometimes be used to treat depression, if symptoms are not controlled with an antidepressant alone.

Psychotherapy (talk therapy)

Patients with depression and other mood disorders may benefit from various types of psychotherapy or counseling sessions. Types of therapy include:

  • Cognitive-behavioral therapy
  • Interpersonal therapy
  • Problem-solving therapy

Brain stimulation therapies

Brain stimulation therapies are thought to work by causing changes in the chemicals in the brain that are known to be associated with symptoms of depression and bipolar disorders. There are several types of brain stimulation therapies including:

  • Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) ECT has long been used to treat severe depression or bipolar disorder in cases when medication or psychotherapy have been unsuccessful. Before having ECT, a patient is placed under general anesthesia and is given a muscle relaxant. Electrodes are placed in certain locations on the scalp or forehead. An electric current is passed through the brain to induce a seizure. The patient awakens after five to 10 minutes. The ECT sessions can be performed on an outpatient basis. Usually, two or three sessions per week are required, over a period of two weeks or more. Generally, six to 12 sessions are required.
  • Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) — This noninvasive procedure uses a magnetic coil to apply short electromagnetic pulses to specific nerve cells in the brain. The magnet is positioned against the forehead, while pulses are sent through the skull. The procedure is used to treat major depression for patients who do not respond to at least one antidepressant drug.

Treatments for seasonal depression

Antidepressant medications, such as SSRIs and bupropion, and psychotherapy are used to treat seasonal affective disorder. In addition, patients may benefit from light therapy and vitamin D supplements.

  • Light therapy — This technique has long been used to treat SAD. It is the idea of supplementing natural sunlight with bright artificial light during the fall and winter. Patients may use a light box that provides cool-white fluorescent light. Each morning, the person is exposed to the artificial light for about 20 to 60 minutes. The light is about 20 times more intense than regular indoor lighting.

Mood disorders such as depression and bipolar disorder may recur or be ongoing and therefore may require long-term or lifetime treatment. It is important to take your medications as prescribed. After starting your medications, it may take two to six weeks before you begin to notice a change in your symptoms. Do not stop taking your medication, even if you begin to feel better.

Discuss any concerns you have about changing or stopping medications with your doctor or another health professional. Ask your doctor whether you might need to try a different medication or have the dosage adjusted, if the one you are taking is ineffective or causes unpleasant side effects such as headaches, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea.

Psychotherapy has been shown to be helpful treatment approach and is often used together with medication or brain stimulation therapy. Minor forms of depression can be treated with psychotherapy alone.

Brain stimulation therapies are usually tried when other treatment options have not been successful, in people with severe symptoms, and in those who cannot tolerate the side effects of drug therapy.

Every therapy has its potential role, as each patient with a mood disorder is unique.

Seek help immediately if you feel suicidal or have thoughts of harming yourself or others.

Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 07/16/2018.

References

Источник: https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/17843-mood-disorders

Mood Swings

Causes and Risk Factors of Mood Swings

Mood swings, or rapid changes in one's emotional state, may occur as a reaction to circumstances or environment, as a result of a physical or mental health condition, or for no apparent reason. General moodiness is ly to be a part of everyone's life, but in some circumstances, changes in mood may be severe and have an effect on health and daily function.

When rapid or frequent mood shifts seem to occur without a cause or when they affect one's behavior, well-being, or typical function, the support of a therapist or other mental health professional may be helpful. 

What Causes Mood Swings?

Exactly what causes mood swings is not known. It is believed a person's moods might result from chemical reactions in the brain. Thus, rapid mood shifts may be the result of chemical imbalances. Mood might also be affected by sleep, diet, medication, and other lifestyle factors, and shifts in these may affect the stability of a person's mood.

Individuals facing changes or difficulties in life may be more ly to experience sudden, unexplained changes in mood. For example, many teenagers may find themselves experiencing frequent and varied mood swings.

Issues regarding identity, self-image, and acceptance may contribute to these emotional changes. A person who is under a significant amount of stress might also have a greater chance of experiencing mood swings.

When a person experiences high levels of stress, even a small negative occurrence might lead to abrupt shifts in mood.

A number of medical and psychiatric conditions may lead to mood swings:

  • Mental health conditions such as bipolar, borderline personality, depression, schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity, and addiction
  • Hormonal changes and related conditions

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  • Dementia, brain tumors, meningitis, or other conditions that affect the central nervous system
  • Thyroid conditions 
  • Conditions that affect the flow of nutrients and oxygen to the brain, such as lung or cardiovascular diseases
  • Stress, emotional overwhelm, and other types of emotional distress

Mood swings can often be treated. When they are not treated, they may contribute to suicidal ideation, thoughts of self-harm, risky behavior, or have other negative effects on health and well-being.

Managing Mood Swings

Mood swings can sometimes be managed with the following strategies:

  • Tracking moods can help facilitate a greater understanding of shifts and changes in emotions. Keeping written track of and journaling about moods may help some individuals notice patterns in mood shifts as well as potential triggers that might affect mood.
  • Exercise produces endorphins, which are hormones that help control stress and improve mood. Even moderate exercise can help relieve frequent or abrupt changes in mood.
  • Maintaining a schedule can be helpful. Doing things at the same time every day can help regulate emotional highs and lows.
  • Sleep can help improve mood. Sleep deprivation, which can affect appetite and energy level, can also contribute to sadness, irritability, and general lowness of mood.
  • Nutrition is considered to be a vital component to mood management. Getting enough nutrients and avoiding the consumption of large amounts of sugar, alcohol, and caffeine may help reduce the frequency of mood swings.

Because mood swings may have a significant impact on health and well-being, especially when the cause goes untreated, the support of a mental health professional may be recommended.

Therapy for Mood Swings

Conditions associated with mood disturbances, such as bipolar and depression, can have a debilitating effect, and therapy can often help individuals who are coping with mood swings.

Because mood swings occur as a symptom of an underlying condition and are not a diagnosable condition, a mental health professional will help the person in therapy explore any potential causes. In therapy, an individual can also develop methods to gain control over sudden shifts in mood.

Once this is accomplished—often through techniques such as journaling, meditation, mindfulness, or breathing exercises—it may be easier to address the underlying issues.

A therapist can often help a person identify whether mood swings occur as the result of a mental health condition or as a symptom of some other type of concern.

Whether mood swings occur as a result of some type of mental or emotional distress or are particular to a certain situation, therapy can often assist in the process of identifying the causes of highs and lows as well as situations that may cause one’s mood to fluctuate. Therapy can also help people develop coping strategies to deal with stressors as they arise.

In therapy, one might also be able to learn to become better able to focus on the present moment with a general goal of learning how to constructively manage moods and maintain a healthy emotional balance.

Mood Swings and Psychological Disorders

Although the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV) contained a section on Mood Disorders, the fifth edition, DSM-5, has been updated to include separate sections on Bipolar Disorders and Depressive Disorders—conditions that are often indicated by mood swings.

While clinical depression may often be indicated by a persistent low mood, in some cases, mood fluctuations may also indicate this condition. Euphoric moods, moods that bring about feelings of invincibility or grandiosity, and moods that lead to impulsive behavior or keep a person awake for days might all indicate a manic episode, such as those seen with bipolar.

When one’s mood cycles rapidly from low to high and back again, bipolar may also be indicated.

The Mood Disorder section in the DSM-IV described major depression, dysthymia, postpartum depression, and bipolar, among others.

In the current edition of the DSM, the section on Bipolar and Related Disorders includes bipolar I and II, cyclothymia, substance/medication-induced bipolar, bipolar related to another medical condition, and specified and unspecified bipolar or related disorder.

The section on Depressive Disorders now includes disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, persistent depressive disorder, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder, in addition to the other types of depression previously included in the DSM-IV.

A primary goal of therapy is to treat and resolve mood issues without medication whenever possible.

Some individuals, however, find that a combination of medication and therapy is most effective at preventing severe mood fluctuations from having a significant negative impact on daily life and function.

Conditions such as bipolar, for example, may often be treated with a combination of medication and therapy.

Case Examples

  • Therapy for severe mood swings: Sonya, 25, enters therapy, reporting extreme moodiness. Sometimes, she tells the therapist, she feels so tired and in such low spirits that she stays in bed for two to three days at a time. Other times, she feels so excited that she feels she can do anything, but she cannot focus on any one thing and finds it so difficult to sleep that she cannot do so without drinking more alcohol than she would to. She also tells the therapist that her moods change abruptly and that, although much of the time she «feels fine,» at other times she feels as if she has no control over her emotions or mood. The therapist identifies the symptoms of bipolar and refers Sonya to a psychiatrist for a medication evaluation. Sonya is reluctant to take medication but agrees to try a small dosage at the psychiatrist's recommendation. Sonya continues in therapy to both address the feelings of lowness she has experienced and explore ways to track and manage her moods. Over the next several weeks, she finds her moods are fairly stable and her sleep schedule has normalized. She no longer resorts to alcohol to sleep, and her feelings of depression subside as she continues work in therapy with the goal of becoming able to completely manage the condition without medication. 
  • Mild mood swings affecting self-image and relationships: Gregor, 49, enters therapy, reporting mood swings, trouble sleeping, and frequent irritability. He tells the therapist he is worried he might be bipolar. However, a review of his symptoms and discussion about his changes in mood indicate a more general, mild moodiness. The therapist and Gregor work together to uncover areas of life that may be affecting his mood, and in therapy he discusses his self-image, various life stresses, and the difficulty he has been experiencing in maintaining a romantic relationship. They also explore ways that Gregor might manage his changes in mood. He decides to try keeping track of when his mood shifts, and in what way, in order to identify possible triggers, and he also resolves to spend at least 20 minutes each day exercising. After a few weeks, Gregor finds his sleep is less troubled, his mood is overall improved, and he has a more positive outlook in general. He continues in therapy to achieve even greater improvement in these areas. 

References: 

  1. 9 Biggest Triggers of Bipolar Mood Swings. (2015, March 20). Retrieved from http://www.everydayhealth.com/bipolar-disorder-pictures/biggest-triggers-of-bipolar-mood-swings.aspx 
  2. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5. (5th ed.). (2013). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association.
  3. Lloyd, W. (2014, June 4). Mood Swings — Symptoms, Causes, Treatments. Retrieved from http://www.healthgrades.com/symptoms/mood-swings 
  4. Lyness, D. (2015, August 1). Why Am I in Such a Bad Mood? Retrieved from http://kidshealth.org/teen/your_mind/emotions/bad_mood.html# 
  5. Parker, G. (2014). DSM-5 and Psychotic and Mood Disorders. The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 42, 182-190. 

Last Update:09-13-2019

Источник: https://www.goodtherapy.org/learn-about-therapy/issues/mood-swings

Mood Disorders

Causes and Risk Factors of Mood Swings

A mood disorder is a mental health class that health professionals use to broadly describe all types of depression and bipolar disorders.

Children, teens, and adults can have mood disorders. However, children and teens don’t always have the same symptoms as adults. It’s harder to diagnose mood disorders in children because they aren’t always able to express how they feel.

Therapy, antidepressants, and support and self-care can help treat mood disorders.

What are the different types of mood disorders?

These are the most common types of mood disorders:

  • Major depression. Having less interest in usual activities, feeling sad or hopeless, and other symptoms for at least 2 weeks may indicate depression.

  • Dysthymia. This is a chronic, low-grade, depressed, or irritable mood that lasts for at least 2 years.

  • Bipolar disorder. This is a condition in which a person has periods of depression alternating with periods of mania or elevated mood.

  • Mood disorder related to another health condition. Many medical illnesses (including cancer, injuries, infections, and chronic illnesses) can trigger symptoms of depression.

  • Substance-induced mood disorder. Symptoms of depression that are due to the effects of medicine, drug abuse, alcoholism, exposure to toxins, or other forms of treatment.

What causes mood disorders?

Many factors contribute to mood disorders. They are ly caused by an imbalance of brain chemicals. Life events (such as stressful life changes) may also contribute to a depressed mood. Mood disorders also tend to run in families.

Who is at risk for mood disorders?

Anyone can feel sad or depressed at times. However, mood disorders are more intense and harder to manage than normal feelings of sadness. Children, teens, or adults who have a parent with a mood disorder have a greater chance of also having a mood disorder. However, life events and stress can expose or worsen feelings of sadness or depression. This makes the feelings harder to manage.

Sometimes, life's problems can trigger depression. Being fired from a job, getting divorced, losing a loved one, death in the family, and financial trouble, to name a few, all can be difficult and coping with the pressure may be troublesome. These life events and stress can bring on feelings of sadness or depression or make a mood disorder harder to manage.

The risk of depression in women is nearly twice as high as it is for men. Once a person in the family has this diagnosis, their brothers, sisters, or children have a higher chance of the same diagnosis. In addition, relatives of people with depression are also at increased risk for bipolar disorder .

Once a person in the family has a diagnosis of bipolar disorder, the chance for their brothers, sisters, or children to have the same diagnosis is increased. Relatives of people with bipolar are also at increased risk for depression.

What are the symptoms of mood disorders?

Depending on age and the type of mood disorder, a person may have different symptoms of depression. The following are the most common symptoms of a mood disorder:

  • Ongoing sad, anxious, or “empty” mood

  • Feeling hopeless or helpless

  • Having low self-esteem

  • Feeling inadequate or worthless

  • Excessive guilt

  • Repeating thoughts of death or suicide, wishing to die, or attempting suicide (Note: People with this symptom should get treatment right away!)

  • Loss of interest in usual activities or activities that were once enjoyed, including sex

  • Relationship problems

  • Trouble sleeping or sleeping too much

  • Changes in appetite and/or weight

  • Decreased energy

  • Trouble concentrating

  • A decrease in the ability to make decisions

  • Frequent physical complaints (for example, headache, stomachache, or tiredness) that don’t get better with treatment

  • Running away or threats of running away from home

  • Very sensitive to failure or rejection

  • Irritability, hostility, or aggression

In mood disorders, these feelings are more intense than what a person may normally feel from time to time. It’s also of concern if these feelings continue over time, or interfere with one's interest in family, friends, community, or work. Any person who expresses thoughts of suicide should get medical help right away.

The symptoms of mood disorders may look other conditions or mental health problems. Always talk with a healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

How are mood disorders diagnosed?

Mood disorders are a real medical disorder. A psychiatrist or other mental health professional usually diagnoses mood disorders through a complete medical history and psychiatric evaluation.

How are mood disorders treated?

Mood disorders can often be treated with success. Treatment may include:

  • Antidepressant and mood stabilizing medicines—especially when combined with psychotherapy have shown to work very well in the treatment of depression

  • Psychotherapy—most often cognitive-behavioral and/or interpersonal therapy. This therapy is focused on changing the person’s distorted views of himself or herself and the environment around him or her. It also helps to improve interpersonal relationship skills, and identifying stressors in the environment and how to avoid them

  • Family therapy

  • Other therapies, such as electroconvulsive therapy and transcranial stimulation

Families play a vital supportive role in any treatment process.

When correctly diagnosed and treated, people with mood disorders can live, stable, productive, healthy lives.

Can mood disorders be prevented?

At this time, there are no ways to prevent or reduce the incidence of mood disorders. However, early diagnosis and treatment can reduce the severity of symptoms, enhance the person’s normal growth and development, and improve the quality of life of people with mood disorders.

Psychologydo
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