5 Types of Internet Abuse Used in Cyberbullying

What Is Cyberbullying? – Cybersmile

5 Types of Internet Abuse Used in Cyberbullying

Cyberbullying is used as an umbrella term to describe many different kinds of online abuse including but not limited to harassment, doxing, reputation attacks and revenge porn.

To constitute cyberbullying – the perpetrator uses technology such as computers, consoles, cell phones and/or any other device with access to the internet or social media to harass, stalk or abuse another person by instigating or participating in online hate campaigns. Although most media coverage indicates that cyberbullying is a problem exclusive to social media – it is also very problematic within the online gaming community.

Victims of cyberbullying often don’t know who are behind the accounts that are abusing them.

Sometimes the victim can suspect who the bullies are, but are unable to prove it because trolling and bullying accounts often make use of everybody’s important right to anonymity – other times, complete strangers become aware of cyberbullying taking place and fall into a ‘mob mentality’ by contributing and amplifying the bullying rather than helping the victim.

Cyberbullying is not exclusive to any specific demographic – everybody is now at risk of being a cyberbullying victim in some way.

Different kinds of cyberbullying

There are many ways that someone can fall victim to or experience cyberbullying when using technology and the internet. Some common methods of cyberbullying are:

  • Harassment – When someone is being harassed online, they are being subjected to a string of abusive messages or efforts to contact them by one person or a group of people. People can be harassed through social media as well as through their mobile phone (texting and calling) and email. Most of the contact the victim will receive will be of a malicious or threatening nature.
  • Doxing – Doxing is when an individual or group of people distribute another person’s personal information such as their home address, cell phone number or place of work onto social media or public forums without that person’s permission to do so. Doxing can cause the victim to feel extremely anxious and it can affect their mental health.
  • Cyberstalking – Similar to harassment, cyberstalking involves the perpetrator making persistent efforts to gain contact with the victim, however this differs from harassment – more commonly than not, people will cyberstalk another person due to deep feelings towards that person, whether they are positive or negative. Someone who is cyberstalking is more ly to escalate their stalking into the offline world.
  • Revenge porn – Revenge porn, is when sexually explicit or compromising images of a person have been distributed onto social media or shared on revenge porn specific websites without their permission to do so. Normally, images of this nature are posted by an ex-partner, who does it with the purpose of causing humiliation and damage to their reputation.
  • Swatting – Swatting is when someone calls emergency responders with claims of dangerous events taking place at an address. People swat others with the intention of causing panic and fear when armed response units arrive at their home or place of work. Swatting is more prevalent within the online gaming community.
  • Corporate attacks – In the corporate world, attacks can be used to send masses of information to a website in order to take the website down and make it non-functional. Corporate attacks can affect public confidence, damaging businesses reputations and in some instances, force them to collapse.
  • Account hacking – Cyberbullies can hack into a victim’s social media accounts and post abusive or damaging messages. This can be particularly damaging for brands and public figures.
  • False profiles – Fake social media accounts can be setup with the intention of damaging a person or brand’s reputation. This can easily be done by obtaining publicly available images of the victim and making the account appear as authentic as possible.
  • Slut shaming – Slut shaming is when someone is called out and labelled as a “slut” for something that they have done previously or even just how they dress. This kind of cyberbullying often occurs when someone has been sexting another person and their images or conversations become public. It is seen more commonly within young people and teenagers but anyone can fall victim to being slut shamed.

Why do people cyberbully?

There are many reasons that someone might choose to cyberbully another person. Some of the most common reasons are:

  • They’ve been cyberbullied themselves – Someone may choose to cyberbully another person because they have been through cyberbullying themselves. They might feel it’s okay to treat people in that way or find that it is the only way to express their own pain.
  • To fit in – If someone sees another person being cyberbullied by a group of people, they may feel that by participating, they will ‘fit in’ or develop a new group of friends themselves.
  • Home life – The perpetrator may be having a difficult home life and misplace their anger and frustration onto someone else. Most of the time, this will happen when the cyberbully doesn’t have anyone to talk to about what they are going through.
  • Power – Someone may choose to cyberbully in order to feel powerful and have the ability to control a situation.
  • Jealously – Jealously is one of the most common reasons for cyberbullying, especially for teenagers and young people. Growing up as teenager can be a difficult time as young people are discovering themselves, and they may feel insecure about their appearance. Because they feel insecure, they might compare themselves to their peers which can result in envy based cyberbullying and abuse.
  • Cyberbullying and video games – Online gaming has grown rapidly over the last few years. This boom has also seen a rise in online players reporting toxicity and abuse when gaming online. Online gamers have the ability to talk to other users through the use of a microphone to chat – this can be used to encourage teamwork, build friendships and improve the overall gaming experience in general. Some players take advantage of this technology and use it to abuse players through verbal abuse or text/messaging abuse.

What to do if you are being cyberbullied

If you are being cyberbullied, it can be easy to think that no one will understand or be able to help you – but that isn’t the case. See below for some advice for how to deal with cyberbullying.

  • Talk to someone – When going through cyberbullying, it is important that you build up a network of support from friends, family and people you can trust. These people will be able to help and support you. Talking to people in times of crisis can not only add a voice of reason or rational thought, it can also help you feel better for being able to share your thoughts and feelings without judgement. If you are a young person or teenager who has fallen victim to cyberbullying, you might want to consider talking to a parent or teacher that you feel you can trust. If the cyberbullying is occurring in school or it is involving people who attend your school, a teacher should be able to help you resolve the issue effectively.
  • Don’t retaliate – When people are cyberbullying others, they are normally doing it for a reaction. If you choose to not retaliate, they will eventually become bored and move on.
  • Assess the threat – If the cyberbully is sending you messages of a threatening nature or you have reason to be worried about your safety, you should contact law enforcement. They will be able to help you with your immediate safety and give you advice on what to do going forward.

It’s important to remember that law enforcement are only there for emergencies and you should only be contacting them if you are in immediate danger or believe your personal safety is at risk.

How do people get cyberbullied?

There are many ways in which someone can be cyberbullied. The majority of hate campaigns take place on social media platforms and through phone calls.

On some social media platforms, you can create pages and secret groups of people. Tools such as these are used to organize hate campaigns.

Cyberbullying statistics

Statistics for cyberbullying and online abuse vary around the world. See below for some recent statistics for cyberbullying and online harassment. Explore our cyberbullying and harassment research section for more in-depth cyberbullying statistics.

PEW Research (U.S.)

  • 41% of Americans have been personally subjected to harassing behavior online.
  • 35% of all adults had experienced some form of online harassment (2014).
  • 62% of U.S. adults say people being harassed or bullied online is a major problem.
  • 70% of women state that online harassment is a major problem.

Cybersmile Research (U.S.)

  • 54.5% of all respondents had seen the most abuse on .
  • 61.1% of all female respondents had seen the most abuse on .
  • 35.7% of respondents had seen religion based bullying online.
  • Nearly 40% of all respondents had seen bullying, harassment or abuse online.

Cybersmile Research (U.K.)

  • 29.6% of respondents aged 25-34 had seen homophobic abuse online.
  • 31.5% of respondents aged 18-24 had seen religion based bullying online.
  • 40.6% of respondents aged 18-24 had seen racist abuse online.
  • 55.1% of all respondents had seen the most online abuse on .

Источник: https://www.cybersmile.org/advice-help/category/what-is-cyberbullying

Cyberbullying

5 Types of Internet Abuse Used in Cyberbullying

Cyberbullying is the use of technology to harass, threaten, embarrass, or target another person. Online threats and mean, aggressive, or rude texts, tweets, posts, or messages all count. So does posting personal information, pictures, or videos designed to hurt or embarrass someone else.

Cyberbullying also includes photos, messages, or pages that don't get taken down, even after the person has been asked to do so. In other words, it's anything that gets posted online and is meant to hurt, harass, or upset someone else.

Intimidation or mean comments that focus on things a person's gender, religion, sexual orientation, race, or physical differences count as discrimination, which is against the law in many states. That means the police could get involved, and bullies may face serious penalties.

Online bullying can be particularly damaging and upsetting because it's usually anonymous or hard to trace. It's also hard to control, and the person being victimized has no idea how many people (or hundreds of people) have seen the messages or posts. People can be tormented nonstop whenever they check their device or computer.

Online bullying and harassment can be easier to commit than other acts of bullying because the bully doesn't have to confront his or her target in person.

What Are the Consequences of Cyberbullying?

Sometimes, online bullying, other kinds of bullying, can lead to serious long-lasting problems. The stress of being in a constant state of upset or fear can lead to problems with mood, energy level, sleep, and appetite. It also can make someone feel jumpy, anxious, or sad. If someone is already depressed or anxious, cyberbullying can make things much worse.

It's not just the person being bullied who gets hurt. The punishment for cyberbullies can be serious. More and more schools and after-school programs are creating systems to respond to cyberbullying.

Schools may dismiss bullies from sports teams or suspend them from school. Some types of cyberbullying may violate school codes or even break anti-discrimination or sexual harassment laws.

So a bully may face serious legal trouble.

Why Do People Do It?

Why would someone be a cyberbully? There are probably as many reasons as there are bullies themselves.

Sometimes, what seems online harassment may be accidental. The impersonal nature of text messages, posts, and other ways of communicating online means it can be hard to figure out if someone is joking or not.

Most people know when they're being bullied, though, because bullying involves repeated insults or threats. The people doing the bullying know they've crossed a line, too. It's not a one-off joke or insult — it's constant harassment and threats that go beyond typical fun teasing or a nasty comment made in anger.

What Can I Do About Cyberbullying?

Sometimes, people are afraid or not sure if they're being bullied or not. So they don't do anything about it. If you're being bullied, harassed, or teased in a hurtful way — or know someone who is — you don't have to suffer in silence. In fact, you absolutely should report any upsetting texts, messages, posts, or emails.

Tell someone. Most experts agree: The first thing to do is tell an adult you trust. This is often easier said than done. People who are cyberbullied may feel embarrassed or reluctant to report a bully.

Some may hesitate because they're not 100% sure who is doing the bullying. But bullying can get worse, so speak up until you find someone to help.

Sometimes the police can track down an anonymous online bully, so it's often worthwhile to report it.

Most parents are so concerned about protecting their kids that sometimes they focus on taking major steps to stop the bullying. If you're being bullied and worry about losing your phone or computer privileges, explain your fears to your parents.

Let them know how important it is to stay connected, and work with them to figure out a solution that doesn't leave you feeling punished as well as picked on.

You may have to do some negotiating on safe phone or computer use — the most important thing is to first get the bullying under control.

You also can talk to your school counselor or a trusted teacher or family member. If the bullying feels it's really getting you down ( if it's affecting your sleep or concentration), therapy can help. If you're not ready for that, you can still benefit from the support of a trusted adult.

Walk away. What you've heard about walking away from a real-life bully works in the virtual world too. Ignoring bullies is the best way to take away their power, but it isn't always easy to do — in the real world or online.

If you see something upsetting, try to step away from the computer or turn off your phone for a while. Don't respond, and never forward the message to someone else. Find something to distract yourself from what's going on.

Do something you love that doesn't give you time to think about what's happening, playing the guitar, going for a run, or losing yourself in a book or movie. You can also just chat with a parent or sibling or play with a pet.

Taking a break this allows you to keep things in perspective and focus on the good things in your life. It also gives you time to figure out how you want to handle things.

Resist the urge to retaliate or respond.

Walking away or taking a break when you're faced with online bullying gives you some space so you won't be tempted to fire back a response or engage with the bully or bullies.

Responding when we're upset can make things worse. (Standing up to a bully can be effective sometimes, but it's more ly to provoke the person and escalate the situation.) Taking a break gives the power back to you!

Although it's not a good idea to respond to a bully, it is a good idea to save evidence of the bullying if you can. It can help you prove your case, if needed. You don't have to keep mean emails, texts, or other communications where you see them all the time — you can ask a parent to make a copy or save them to a flash drive.

Report bullying. Social media sites take it seriously when people post cruel or mean stuff or set up fake accounts. If users report abuse, the site administrator may block the bully from using the site in the future. If someone sends you mean texts or emails, report it to phone service or email providers (such as Comcast, Google, and Verizon).

Block the bully. Most devices have settings that let you electronically block the bully or bullies from sending notes. If you don't know how to do this, ask a friend or adult who does.

Be safe online. Password protect your smartphone and your online sites, and change your passwords often. Be sure to share your passwords only with your parent or guardian.

It's also wise to think twice before sharing personal information or photos/videos that you don't want the world to see. Once you've posted a photo or message, it can be difficult or impossible to delete.

So remind yourself to be cautious when posting photos or responding to someone's upsetting message.

If a Friend Is a Bully

If you know of a friend who is acting as a cyberbully, take him or her aside and talk about it. Without putting your friend down, stand up for your own principles: Let the bully know it's not OK.

Explain to your friend that bullying can have serious consequences: for the bully, for those being bullied, and even for bystanders you and your friends.

Источник: https://kidshealth.org/en/teens/cyberbullying.html

Cyberbullying and Digital Abuse

5 Types of Internet Abuse Used in Cyberbullying

Technology is a great way to meet new people and to interact with your friends. But unfortunately, people can use the same tool that keeps us connected to bully or harass others.  While bullying isn’t new, with new technological advancements, we run into new issues with old problems.

Cyberbullying is bullying that occurs through technology, by phones or social media.  A bully could reach a victim through a group text, a messaging app, Snapchat, Instagram, Tik Tok, , , , or even through online gaming, the possibilities are endless.

Types of Cyberbullying

Cyberbullying comes in many different forms.  Below is a list of types of cyberbullying someone may see or experience:

  • Flaming – Online fights, name calling, and similar actions
  • Disparaging – Posts or messages that target someone.  This could include posts that target someone their race, ethnicity, religion, gender identity, or sexual orientation.
  • Exclusion – Leaving someone a game or group chat, or any other social media activity.
  • Outing – Sharing someone’s secrets or private information.
  • Trickery – Tricking someone into telling you something private and then outing them.
  • Impersonation – Pretending to be someone you are not.  Also known as Catfishing.
  • Harassment – Repeatedly sending malicious messages.
  • Cyberstalking – Continuously harassing and disparaging including threats of physical harm.

Important Facts

  • 59 percent of U.S. teens have been bullied or harassed online (Pew Research Center).
  • Name calling is a common form of cyberbullying.

    Pew Research Center found that 42 percent of teenagers have been called names on the internet or through their cellphone.

  • A third of adolescents said that misinformation had been spread about them online (Pew Research Center).

  • LGBTQ students are at an increased risk of being bullied at school or online

Consequences

Cyber Bullying, just traditional bullying, can have real world consequences for the bully, and the victim.  Some of the consequences of cyberbullying are as follows:

  • Legal Consequences: A person that bullies someone online could suffer legal consequences. This can be a legal gray area in your state.  Some states do not have specific anti-cyberbullying laws, but a perpetrator can still be prosecuted under other existing laws.
  • School Consequences: School policies and procedures may vary on bullying and cyberbullying, but there could still be consequences for these offences, including legal ones.
  • Mental Health: Bullying increases adolescents risk for depression, suicidal ideation, misuse of drugs and alcohol, risky sexual behavior, and it can impact academics as well. For LGBTQ youth, that risk is even higher (Stopbullying.gov).
  • It’s hard to escape: With traditional bullying, a bully was not ly to knock on your door in the middle of the night, but with cyberbullying, a perpetrator can reach out and harass a victim 24/7, plus they have the ability to do this anonymously.
  • Content Posted is hard to get rid of: Hopefully, if you reach out to a media website or app, then they would be able to take down disparaging content, but considering the large scope of social media providers available, this could be a daunting task.  When something is posted online, then it is saved on the server of the website.  You no longer own the content you posted, and neither does a bully that posts content about you.  Large sites or apps are generally better about helping with reports of abuse than smaller ones are, so be cautious about what platforms you are part of.  These can be lengthy, but reading a company’s privacy policies can help you determine if that particular site of interest is right for you.
  • Future consequences: Anything you post online could be found and used against you.  So if you are bullying someone online, this could jeopardize future employment and educational opportunities.  In fact, a Career Builder survey found that 70 percent of employers admit to using social media to help them determine if a candidate is right for the job, 54 percent of employers reported that they decided not to hire a candidate because of their social media profiles, nearly half of employers check current employees profiles, with over a third of employers having sanctioned or fired a worker due to inappropriate content (prnewswire.com). For education, 36 percent of college admission staff searched their applicant’s digital footprints (Kaplan).

What you can do if you are being cyberbullied

Life is hard, especially for teenagers.  There is so much to worry about, and bullying can make all of that worse.  You have the right to be safe, respected, and you don’t deserve to be bullied or harassed, whether that be online or in person.  Consider the following information if you are dealing with bullying or cyberbullying:

  • Talk to a trusted adult. This could be a parent, teacher, counselor, coach, or any other trustworthy adult that you know.  These people can help you and help determine if you need to take additional steps.
  • Block, Document, and Report! Many sites have blocking features, and this can help alleviate the frequency of bullying instances. Document instances of bullying and contact the sites’ administrators. Some social media sites have divisions that investigate forms of abuse, including cyberbullying.
  • If you or someone you know is in an immediate risk of danger or harm, then call 911
  • If someone has committed a crime, then contact your local law enforcement
  • If you are at risk for hurting yourself or someone else, contact the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline or our crisis line

Additional Resources

  • Visit Stopbullying.gov for more information about bullying, laws, and additional resources for help.
  • Visit AMAZE for more great information on topics related to teenagers.
  • Visit our Social Media, and Sexting page for more information.

Digital Abuse

Technology allows us to stay connected.  Whether you are re-connecting with a lost friend from elementary school, video chatting with a partner that is far away, or making new connections with people that you’ve never met, technology allows us to reach out and touch people in ways that would have been impossible before these advancements.

While technology has done a lot of good in changing the dating landscape, it is important to think about some of the things that could go wrong online, particularly in a relationship.

  Identifying potential problems will help you avoid these in the first place, will help you handle a situation if it happens to you, and will make you better equipped to identify signs of digital abuse in the relationships of those that you care about.

Digital Abuse is abuse that occurs through the use of technology such as texting and social media.  This often happens in the context of a dating relationship, but not always.  Unfortunately, digital abuse is fairly common.

  1 in 4 teenagers that are in a relationship have experienced digital abuse or harassment (Urban Institute).  Digital abuse is a serious matter that may spill over into other types of abuse.

  According to the Urban Institute 96 percent of teens that have experienced digital abuse have also experienced other forms of violence or abuse from their partners.

Signs of digital abuse

Knowing what digital abuse looks can help you determine if steps should be taken to set boundaries, end the relationship, or seek further help.  Below are some signs of digital abuse:

  • Your partner sends or posts negative, insulting, or threatening messages directed towards you.
  • Your partner tries to control who you interact with online.
  • Your partner tries to get you to post content that you are uncomfortable with.
  • Your partner sends you unwanted sexual pictures, sends pictures of you without your permission, or insists you send them pictures.
  • Your partner steals or demands to be given your password.
  • Your partner constantly uses social media to keep an eye on what you are doing.

Your digital relationship rights

You have a say in what happens in your relationships online, just you should have in person:

  • You have the right to control your own content. No one should try to force you into posting what you don’t want to post, to try to change or control what you say online, or to post unwanted content on your behalf
  • You can step away. Your partner should not pressure you into replying within a specific time frame, nor should they get mad if you choose to take a break from social media, or if you choose to delete your accounts all together
  • You have the right to privacy. Your partner should not pressure you into sharing your password with them.
  • You have the right to speak to whoever you want to. Your partner should not try to control who you talk to online, nor should they use this against you
  • You do not have to send any picture or message that you are uncomfortable sending
  • Lastly, you have the right to end any relationship that you are uncomfortable with and at any time.

How to get help

If you are being abused in any capacity, then it’s important to seek help.

  • Talk to an adult. This can be a parent, an older sibling, a teacher, law enforcement, a counselor, a member of a religious institution, or any other adult that you trust and has proven that they are trustworthy.
  • If you are at risk for hurting yourself or someone else, contact the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline.
  • If you have been hurt or a crime has been committed, then call 911 if it is safe to do so.
  • You can visit loveisrespect.org, call 1-866-331-9474, or text: LOVEIS TO 22522 if you are unable to speak safely.  This is a good resource for information, help, and to connect you with local resources.

Источник: https://centerstone.org/teen/media/cyberbullying-and-digital-abuse/

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