10 Biographical Facts About Sigmund Freud

Содержание
  1. Top 10 facts about Sigmund Freud
  2. 1. Sigmund Freud’s activism and Cocaine Use
  3. 2. Freud Ditched his Lab job to become a doctor for love
  4. 3. Freud’s not so happily ever after Matrimony
  5. 4. Anna Freud took after her Father, Freud Sigmund
  6. 5. Freud and the Cigar: 20 smokes a day
  7. 6. Sigmund Freud Turned Down a Hollywood Consulting Gig
  8. 7. Sigmund’s low Book sale
  9. 8. Sigmund Freud’s Famous couch and a Grateful Patient
  10. 9. Freud’s burned Books and Austria Exodus
  11. 10. Sigmund Freud Lost his Sisters in the Holocaust
  12. Neurotic Facts About Sigmund Freud, The Dangerous Doctor
  13. 2. It’s a Sign!
  14. 3. Good Boy
  15. 4. Lasting Legacy
  16. 6. Sounds a New Complex
  17. 7. Faced With Failure
  18. 8. Brain Power
  19. 9. Handle Me at My Worst
  20. 10. Anna NO
  21. 12. Blow out
  22. 13. Just Replace “Hamlet” With “Oedipus”
  23. 14. No Pressure!
  24. 15. When Siggy Met Carl
  25. 16. Slow Start
  26. 18. Wait, What?
  27. 19. U.S-Nay
  28. 20. For Love Nor Money
  29. 21. Anyone Got a Light?
  30. 22. Bad Habits
  31. 24. Hoarding the Past
  32. 25. Ego Showdown
  33. 26. Ceci N’est Pas Une Pipe
  34. 27. Unlucky Number 13
  35. 28. The Great Escape
  36. 29. Famous Friends
  37. 30. Daddy Issues
  38. 31. All About Me(n)
  39. 32. Black Humor
  40. 33. Women on Top
  41. 34. A Great Loss
  42. 35. So, Tell Me About Your Father
  43. 36. Well, That’s…a Conclusion
  44. 37. Just the Ticket
  45. 38. That Could Have Gone Better…
  46. 39. Wasn’t Me
  47. 40. Two Girls, One Freud
  48. 41. Take It As a Sign
  49. 42. The Last Escape
  50. Sigmund Freud
  51. Early Life, Education and Career
  52. 'Studies in Hysteria' (1895)
  53. 'The Interpretation of Dreams' (1900)
  54. 'The Psychopathology of Everyday Life' (1901)
  55. 'Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality' (1905)
  56. Wife and Kids
  57. Death

Top 10 facts about Sigmund Freud

10 Biographical Facts About Sigmund Freud

By Photograph by Mike Peel wikimedia

Sigmund Freud is considered to be one of the most famous thinkers in the development of psychology, although most of his theories are not widely accepted by modern psychologists.

He was born in May in 1856 in a small town called Freiberg, Moravia. His father Jakob, was a wool merchant, Smart and had a good sense of humor. His mother, Amalia, was the second wife and was 20 years younger than her husband.

The Family later moved to Vienna, Austria for better opportunities after his father’s business failed to pick up in Moravia. Sigmund lived there most of his life.

Some interesting 10 facts about the Austrian Neurologist;

1. Sigmund Freud’s activism and Cocaine Use

Freud was very much interested in possible anti-depressant effects of cocaine and supported its use in various functions.

Back then, the damaging effects of cocaine had not been discovered. The drug was used as a pain killer and for euphoric purposes. It was also used in household products such as soda pops and throat lozenges.

Freud’s medical practice suffered the consequence of the harmful effects of cocaine became known.

2. Freud Ditched his Lab job to become a doctor for love

A boy saw a girl and fell madly in love with her. She reciprocated the love and two months later the two love birds were engaged.

Her name was Martha Bernays.

Sigmund later realized that to be able to provide for Martha and himself, he needed a better job. He made the painful decision, for love’s sake to become a doctor.

Four years later after med-school in Vienna General Hospital, Freud and Martha tied the knot on September 14, 1886.

3. Freud’s not so happily ever after Matrimony

After getting married, the two settled comfortably and soon their family grew. Freud was pleased with Martha as she became the kind of wife he had hoped for, homemaker.

The two became parents to six children with Martha managing the home and caring for the children while Freud attended to his medical practice and research theories.

The gradual life change took a toll on their relationship and the love they once expressed to each other was no more.

Freud soon got consumed by his work as the spark that once ignited their love slowly faded away. There are speculations that Freud had an affair with Minna Bernays, his sister-in-law.

4. Anna Freud took after her Father, Freud Sigmund

The apple doesn’t fall far from the tree. Such was the case with Anna Freud whose career was influenced by her father’s theories.

She made important contributions of her own to psychology. She carried further research of her father’s work and discovered many types of defense mechanisms that the ego uses to protect itself from anxiety.

5. Freud and the Cigar: 20 smokes a day

Photo by Joris Visser on Unsplash

Sigmund Freud was a lifelong cigar smoker. He would smoke up to 20 cigars a day; this is according to his biographer Ernst Jones. He believed that smoking increased his productivity and creativity.

Despite having had 33 surgeries and losing a big chunk of his jaw to a malignant tumor; Freud did not quit smoking.

6. Sigmund Freud Turned Down a Hollywood Consulting Gig

Freud’s rise to fame was widespread so much so it caught the attention of a prominent movie producer Samuel Goldwyn.

Goldwyn reached out to Freud to write a film script about “the great love stories of history”. He (Goldwyn) referred to Freud as the greatest love specialist in the world.

Freud turned down the $100,000 offer. He had previously turned down a $25,000 offer from the Chicago Tribune publisher to psychoanalyze two famous criminals, Leopold and Loeb, who were awaiting their sensational murder trial.

7. Sigmund’s low Book sale

The interpretation of Dreams is one of Freud’s favorite works. He regarded it as his most noteworthy work.

The book did not catch the attention of many when it was first published. Only 351 copies were sold in its first six years.

The book was first published in 1899; the second edition was published mush later in 1909.

8. Sigmund Freud’s Famous couch and a Grateful Patient

By ROBERT HUFFSTUTTER -wikimedia

When he opened his medical practice in 1886, Freud used hypnotism. To have a successful session, he found it easier to put the patients into a trance while lying down on their backs.

The center piece of his office was his famous psychoanalytic couch. One of his patients, Madame Benvenisti, gifted him a couch as a thank you around 1890.

The couch was covered in a Persian throw rug, Freud added this piece later to hide the plain frame of the couch. It gave a comfortable feel to the patients, un the hospital beds.

Later in 1938 when Freud moved to London, he brought the couch with him recreating the same atmosphere in his new aboard.

The Famous couch is in the Freud Museum in London.

9. Freud’s burned Books and Austria Exodus

In 1933 the Nazis burned Freud’s books for being Jewish although he was an atheist.

He joked about the irony of reversed progress where he would have been the one burned had it been the Middle Ages.

After Germany took over Austria, the Nazis raided his apartment, detained and interrogated his daughter Anna.

Freud managed to escape with the help of his friend and patient, Princess Marie Bonaparte. He fled to London with his wife and daughter Anna.

10. Sigmund Freud Lost his Sisters in the Holocaust

Four of Freud’s sisters who were in Vienna were sent to Nazi concentration camps. Princess Bonaparte attempted to use her influence to obtain exit visas for the four with no success.

The four died in the concentration camps.

Freud died just weeks after the start of World War II.

After his death, Freud was cremated and his ashes stored in an ancient Greek urn gifted to him by Bonaparte.  His wife’s ashes were later added to the vase which is stored at the London Golders Green Crematorium.

Источник: https://www.discoverwalks.com/blog/vienna/top-10-facts-about-sigmund-freud/

Neurotic Facts About Sigmund Freud, The Dangerous Doctor

10 Biographical Facts About Sigmund Freud

If someone was asked to name a famous figure in psychology, most people would say “Sigmund Freud.” Even though it’s been nearly a century since his death, the psychoanalyst still looms large. Of course, anyone who spent their life studying people’s darkest fears and dirtiest secrets is going to have a fascinating biography. Freud is no exception.

Sigismund Schlomo Freud was born on May 6, 1856.  He was the first born of eight—EIGHT!—children.

Wikipedia

2. It’s a Sign!

When Freud was born, his parents noticed something strange. Their new baby had a caul, or a thin membrane covering his head. Though rare, cauls aren’t very dangerous or difficult to remove. Even so, Freud’s mother saw the mark as a glorious sign that her son was destined for greatness. Can’t say she was wrong, either.

Wikipedia

3. Good Boy

Freud owned a Chow-Chow pup named Jofi, and he often used him as a therapy dog for his patients.

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4. Lasting Legacy

The psychoanalyst may still be famous today, but modern experts consider most of his theories a bunch of phooey—except for one big one. Freud advocated for the use of talk therapy, a practice that has endured across the evolution of psychology, psychotherapy, and various other related fields long after his death. Take that, doubters.

Freud (1962), Universal International Pictures

Sigmund Freud is actually the reason we associate therapy with lying on a couch. You see, when he started using hypnotism during his regular psychoanalytic sessions, he found it was much easier to “mesmerize” patients when they were lying down on a couch as opposed to sitting up in a chair. And thus, a cliché was born.

Wikipedia

6. Sounds a New Complex

Freud had a conflicted relationship with his father, and there was one thing he never forgave him for. When a man insulted his father on the street, Freud was aghast to find that his patriarch did nothing. This passivity disturbed the psychoanalyst, and he apparently never forgave his father for the rest of his life.

Wikimedia Commons

7. Faced With Failure

Before getting into psychoanalysis, Freud was preoccupied with an entirely different topic. He studied zoology, and was specifically focused on finding the gonads of male eels. Uh, yes, really. Scientists hadn’t found them yet, and Freud never did either. After hours of dissections, he was forced to admit that “All the eels I have cut open are of the tenderer sex.”

Flickr, David Stanley

8. Brain Power

Freud’s studies of the human brain in university helped with the discovery of the neuron.

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9. Handle Me at My Worst

In 1882, the young Freud encountered Martha Bernays, the daughter of a prominent Jewish family. They fell head over heels with each other, and the whopping 900 letters that Freud wrote to her during their four-year engagement are considered part of the “great love literature of the world.” In one note, Freud pines, “I love you with a kind of passionate enchantment.”

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10. Anna NO

One of Freud’s most famous patients was the so-called “Anna O.,” who suffered from strange symptoms such as hallucinations and loss of consciousness. Though Freud officially diagnosed her with hysteria, modern experts have suggested a different possibility. According to them, she could have been suffering from a physical illness meningitis or epilepsy.

Freud (1962), Universal International Pictures

Freud and Martha Bernay’s marriage in 1886 was a great success, and they remained married until Freud’s death 53 years later. Even after having six children together, Bernay reflected that in all the time they were married, “there was not a single angry word between [them].” Wow, am I allowed to be jealous right now?

Wikimedia Commons

12. Blow out

Freud was a huge user of the white stuff, and by that I mean begins with a “C” and ends with “ocaine.” He even recommended it to friends.

A Dangerous Method (2011), Recorded Picture Company

13. Just Replace “Hamlet” With “Oedipus”

a lot of people, one of Freud’s favorite writers was William Shakespeare—but his admiration went much further than light reading. Scholars have noted an significant overlap between Shakespeare’s plays and Freud’s own theories, and many believe Shakespeare’s writing helped shape Freud’s views on human psychology.

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14. No Pressure!

Freud’s mother Amalia was utterly devoted to her baby boy. She favored him heavily over her other children and called him by the pet name “my golden Sigi.” This may seem an ideal upbringing, but the truth was much different. Freud confessed that the favortism gave him “this victor feeling” that left him disappointed in adult life.

A Dangerous Method (2011), Recorded Picture Company

15. When Siggy Met Carl

Carl Jung was another heavy-hitter psychologist during Freud’s time, and the two men got along a house on fire. When they first met, they reportedly talked for 13 hours without stopping.

A Dangerous Method (2011), Recorded Picture Company

16. Slow Start

As you can imagine, society didn’t immediately accept Freud’s ideas and theories. To put it into perspective, Freud’s book The Interpretation of Dreams was published in 1899. This book first introduced the concept of the Oedipus complex as well as the unconscious mind, and Freud named it his “most significant work.”

Nonetheless, it sold less than 400 copies in the first six years of its release. Major ouch.

Wikimedia Commons

Freud had some super VIP patients in his practice, among them Prince Pedro Augusto of Brazil, the composer Gustav Mahler, and Napoleon‘s great-granddaughter Princess Marie Bonaparte. To protect the identities of these illustrious and powerful people, Freud referred to them by pseudonyms even in his own personal notes.

Wikimedia Commons

18. Wait, What?

Freud may have been a genius, but he had a very dark side. Even during his heyday, people accused him of falsifying his findings to fit his own theories. So, if he wanted to prove his theory about the Oedipal complex (where a son wants to kill his father and sleep with his mother), he’d simply change his patients’ testimonies.

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19. U.S-Nay

Freud absolutely despised America, particularly what he saw as its informality and greed. He hated the way his American hosts called him by his first name and thought American society revolved too much around money. His hatred was so strong, he even refused to go there when he was seeking safe haven away from Nazi Germany. Now THAT is commitment.

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20. For Love Nor Money

By 1925, Freud’s theories were so widespread that many considered him to be the “greatest love specialist in the world.” Well, Hollywood took notice, and legendary producer Samuel Goldwyn offered him over a million dollars in today’s currency to become a consultant for romantic film scripts. Freud turned him down flat.

Wikimedia Commons

21. Anyone Got a Light?

Freud suffered from an addictive personality, especially where tobacco was concerned. Beginning in his 20s, he started smoking daily. He eventually had as many as 20 cigars a day.

A Dangerous Method (2011), Recorded Picture Company

22. Bad Habits

Unsurprisingly, all that tobacco indulging had serious consequences on Freud’s health. In 1923, doctors found a cancerous tumor inside his mouth. Freud underwent more than 30 surgeries, one of which included getting a prosthetic in his jaw. In all that time, across 16 years of surgeries, Freud never quit his habit.

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Freud has been on the big and small screen several times since his passing. The actors who have portrayed Freud include Viggo Mortensen and Montgomery Clift.

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24. Hoarding the Past

Freud’s nostalgia for the past didn’t just manifest through his research and his theories; he also loved to collect artifacts from antiquity.

Flickr, Jan Kaláb

25. Ego Showdown

Though Carl Jung and Freud were fast friends, their relationship came to a heartbreaking end. Jung’s ideas started splitting off from Freud’s, creating personal and professional tension. In 1914, the battle reached such a fever pitch that Freud and his loyal followers closed rank, forcing Jung the International Psychoanalytical Association.

A Dangerous Method (2011), Recorded Picture Company

26. Ceci N’est Pas Une Pipe

Freud probably never said “Sometimes a cigar is just a cigar.” Still, the man loved a puff, and certainly loved turning everyday objects into sensual metaphors.

Freud (1962), Universal International Pictures

27. Unlucky Number 13

Freud was nominated for 13 Nobel Prizes, but never won any.

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28. The Great Escape

When Germany took over Austria in the 1930s, Freud’s life was in danger—and then it took an even darker turn. Men raided his apartment and detained his daughter Anna. Though Freud had been reluctant to escape Vienna, he knew he had no choice after this. With the help of Princess Marie Bonaparte, he obtained safe passage to London with his wife and Anna in tow.

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29. Famous Friends

Such was Freud’s reputation that a number of prestigious figures welcomed him to London. This welcoming party included H.G. Wells, Virginia Woolf, and Salvador Dali.

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30. Daddy Issues

When he was eight years old, Freud experienced one of his most lasting traumas. He acted out and intentionally peed in his parents’ bedroom, leading his father to yell, “There will come nothing of this boy!” Freud confessed that the words left him scarred for life, and even said that all his accomplishments were to prove he could be somebody. That sure sounds very…oh, right.

Freud (1962), Universal International Pictures

31. All About Me(n)

In his own lifetime, people thought Freud’s ideas about women were controversial. One of his theories states that women are envious of boys’ private junk, and even early 20th-century intellectuals were , uh no.

Freud (1962), Universal International Pictures

32. Black Humor

When Germany started burning books from Jewish intellectuals and other “undesirables,” Freud’s works were among the first to go. His steely response was unforgettable. “What progress we are making,” Freud said wryly, “In the Middle Ages they would have burnt me; nowadays they are content with burning my books.”

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33. Women on Top

Despite Freud’s controversial views on girls, he had a lot of help from women in his life. Bertha Pappenheim and Sabina Spielrein were both colleagues who inspired Freud to develop talk therapy and the death drive theory, respectively. After Freud’s death, his daughter Anna not only ensured her father’s legacy, she also became a renowned psychoanalyst herself.

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34. A Great Loss

Though Freud escaped from Austria with his life, his family suffered a much more tragic fate. Despite attempts to get them to safety, all four of his sisters died in concentration camps.

Flickr, George C. Marshall

35. So, Tell Me About Your Father

Freud was actually his own daughter Anna’s therapist. Not exactly ethical, Sigmund.

Wikimedia Commons

36. Well, That’s…a Conclusion

One of Freud’s most…interesting…cases was Emma Eckstein, who went to him complaining of restricted leg mobility and stomach pain. From this, Freud came to an utterly disturbing conclusion. He felt her tendency to self-pleasure was the culprit, and referred her to his colleague Wilhelm Fliess. This is where the story really gets weird. 

Wikipedia

37. Just the Ticket

At the time, both Fliess and Freud believed that the tissues in our noses were linked to our tissue down-under. I know, stay with me here. In order to “fix” Eckstein’s libido and immobility, Fliess decided to operate on her nasal cavity. Except it all went horrifically wrong: Fliess botched the job and left Eckstein permanently disfigured.

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38. That Could Have Gone Better…

There was apparently so much blood during Eckstein’s operation that Freud fled the room in terror.

A Dangerous Method (2011), Recorded Picture Company

39. Wasn’t Me

Shockingly, Freud never owned up to his part in Emma Eckstein’s disastrous surgery, and even somehow blamed her profuse bleeding on her latent crush on him. No, really. He called them “wish-bleedings” and said they were symptoms of “an old wish to be loved in her illness.” Meanwhile, Eckstein continued being his patient.

A Dangerous Method (2011), Recorded Picture Company

40. Two Girls, One Freud

In 1896, Freud’s sister-in-law Minna Bernays joined his household after her fiancé died tragically. Totally above-board, right? Well, some people believe there’s much more to the story.Freud developed a close relationship with Minna, which certain experts think turned into a steamy extramarital affair.

Freud (1962), Universal International Pictures

41. Take It As a Sign

Even though it’s difficult to prove Freud’s infidelity with Minna, historians believe they have a single ruinous clue. In 1898, Freud travelled with Minna to a hotel in Switzerland and signed the logbook under his name. To some experts, this is evidence that the two were in a tryst and looking for a place to hook up.

Fliclr, Dennis Jarvis

42. The Last Escape

By September 1939, Freud was in so much pain from the cancer in his jaw that he approached his long-time friend and colleague, Dr. Max Schur, and begged him to end it with morphine. Schur, or perhaps even a different doctor depending on what report you believe, complied. The great psychoanalyst passed on September 23, 1939, at the age of 83.

Wikimedia Commons

Sources: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15

Источник: https://www.factinate.com/people/facts-sigmund-freud/

Sigmund Freud

10 Biographical Facts About Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Freud was an Austrian neurologist who developed psychoanalysis, a method through which an analyst unpacks unconscious conflicts the free associations, dreams and fantasies of the patient. His theories on child sexuality, libido and the ego, among other topics, were some of the most influential academic concepts of the 20th century.

Early Life, Education and Career

Freud was born in the Austrian town of Freiberg, now known as the Czech Republic, on May 6, 1856.

When he was four years old, Freud’s family moved to Vienna, the town where he would live and work for most of the remainder of his life. He received his medical degree in 1881.

As a medical student and young researcher, Freud’s research focused on neurobiology, exploring the biology of brains and nervous tissue of humans and animals.

After graduation, Freud promptly set up a private practice and began treating various psychological disorders. Considering himself first and foremost a scientist, rather than a doctor, he endeavored to understand the journey of human knowledge and experience.

Early in his career, Freud became greatly influenced by the work of his friend and Viennese colleague, Josef Breuer, who had discovered that when he encouraged a hysterical patient to talk uninhibitedly about the earliest occurrences of the symptoms, the symptoms sometimes gradually abated.

After much work together, Breuer ended the relationship, feeling that Freud placed too much emphasis on the sexual origins of a patient's neuroses and was completely unwilling to consider other viewpoints. Meanwhile, Freud continued to refine his own argument.

Freud's psychoanalytic theory, inspired by his colleague Josef Breuer, posited that neuroses had their origins in deeply traumatic experiences that had occurred in the patient's past. He believed that the original occurrences had been forgotten and hidden from consciousness.

His treatment was to empower his patients to recall the experience and bring it to consciousness, and in doing so, confront it both intellectually and emotionally. He believed one could then discharge it and rid oneself of the neurotic symptoms.

Some of Freud’s most discussed theories included:

  • Id, ego and superego: These are the three essential parts of the human personality. The id is the primitive, impulsive and irrational unconscious that operates solely on the outcome of pleasure or pain and is responsible for instincts to sex and aggression. The ego is the “I” people perceive that evaluates the outside physical and social world and makes plans accordingly. And the superego is the moral voice and conscience that guides the ego; violating it results in feelings of guilt and anxiety. Freud believed the superego was mostly formed within the first five years of life the moral standards of a person’s parents; it continued to be influenced into adolescence by other role models.
  • Psychic energy: Freud postulated that the id was the basic source of psychic energy or the force that drives all mental processes. In particular, he believed that libido, or sexual urges, was a psychic energy that drives all human actions; the libido was countered by Thanatos, the death instinct that drives destructive behavior.
  • Oedipus complex: Between the ages of three and five, Freud suggested that as a normal part of the development process all kids are sexually attracted to the parent of the opposite sex and in competition with the parent of the same sex. The theory is named after the Greek legend of Oedipus, who killed his father so he could marry his mother.
  • Dream analysis: In his book The Interpretation of Dreams, Freud believed that people dreamed for a reason: to cope with problems the mind is struggling with subconsciously and can’t deal with consciously. Dreams were fueled by a person’s wishes. Freud believed that by analyzing our dreams and memories, we can understand them, which can subconsciously influence our current behavior and feelings.

Freud’s theories were no doubt influenced by other scientific discoveries of his day. Charles Darwin's understanding of humankind as a progressive element of the animal kingdom certainly informed Freud's investigation of human behavior.

Additionally, the formulation of a new principle by scientist Hermann von Helmholtz, stating that energy in any given physical system is always constant, informed Freud's scientific inquiries into the human mind.

Freud's work has been both rapturously praised and hotly critiqued, but no one has influenced the science of psychology as intensely as Sigmund Freud.

The great reverence that was later given to Freud's theories was not in evidence for some years. Most of his contemporaries felt that his emphasis on sexuality was either scandalous or overplayed.

In 1909, he was invited to give a series of lectures in the United States; it was only after the ensuing publication of his book Five Lectures on Psycho-Analysis (1916) that his fame grew exponentially.

Freud has published a number of important works on psychoanalysis. Some of the most influential include:

'Studies in Hysteria' (1895)

Freud and Breuer published their theories and findings in this book, which discussed their theories that by confronting trauma from a patient’s past, a psychoanalyst can help a patient rid him or herself of neuroses.

'The Interpretation of Dreams' (1900)

In 1900, after a serious period of self-analysis, Freud published what has become his most important and defining work, which posits that dream analysis can give insight into the workings of the unconscious mind.

The book was and remains controversial, producing such topics as the Oedipus complex.

Many psychologists say this work gave birth to modern scientific thinking about the mind and the fields of psychology, psychiatry and psychoanalysis.

'The Psychopathology of Everyday Life' (1901)

This book gave birth to the so-called “Freudian slip” — the psychological meaning behind the misuse of words in everyday writing and speech and the forgetting of names and words. These slips, he explained through a series of examples, revealed our inner desires, anxieties and fantasies.

'Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality' (1905)

While no one person will die without sex, the whole of humanity would without it — so sex drives human instincts, Freud believed. In this work, he explores sexual development and the relationship between sex and social behavior without applying his controversial Oedipal complex.

Wife and Kids

In 1882, Freud became engaged to marry Martha Bernays. The couple had six children — the youngest of whom, Anna Freud, went on to become a distinguished psychoanalyst herself.

Death

Freud fled Austria to escape the Nazis in 1938 and died in England on September 23, 1939, at age 83 by suicide. He had requested a lethal dose of morphine from his doctor, following a long and painful battle with oral cancer.

Watch «Sigmund Freud: Analysis of a Mind» on HISTORY Vault

Источник: https://www.biography.com/scholar/sigmund-freud

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